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Electrical Properties of Solvated Tectomers: Towards Zettascale Computing (2019)
Journal Article
Chiolerio, A., Draper, T. C., Jost, C., & Adamatzky, A. (in press). Electrical Properties of Solvated Tectomers: Towards Zettascale Computing. Advanced Electronic Materials, https://doi.org/10.1002/aelm.201900202

Liquid cybernetic systems with embodied intelligence solutions mimicking biologic systems, in response to the future increasingly distributed sensing and the resulting data to be managed, has been proposed as the next cybernetic paradigm. Storing and... Read More about Electrical Properties of Solvated Tectomers: Towards Zettascale Computing.

Marimo machines: oscillators, biosensors and actuators (2019)
Journal Article
Phillips, N., Draper, T. C., Mayne, R., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Marimo machines: oscillators, biosensors and actuators. Journal of Biological Engineering, 13(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s13036-019-0200-5

Background The green algae balls (Aegagropila linnaei), known as Marimo, are large spherical colonies of live photosynthetic filaments, formed by rolling water currents in freshwater lakes. Photosynthesis therein produces gas bubbles that can attach... Read More about Marimo machines: oscillators, biosensors and actuators.

Belousov-Zhabotinsky liquid marbles in robot control (2019)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M., Fullarton, C., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Belousov-Zhabotinsky liquid marbles in robot control. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 295, 194-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2019.04.152

We show how to control the movement of a wheeled robot using on-board liquid marbles made of Belousov-Zhabotinsky solution droplets coated with polyethylene powder. Two stainless steel, iridium coated electrodes were inserted in a marble and the elec... Read More about Belousov-Zhabotinsky liquid marbles in robot control.

Thermal switch of oscillation frequency in Belousov–Zhabotinsky liquid marbles (2019)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., Fullarton, C., Phillips, N., De Lacy Costello, B., & Draper, T. C. (in press). Thermal switch of oscillation frequency in Belousov–Zhabotinsky liquid marbles. Royal Society Open Science, 6(4), 190078. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190078

External control of oscillation dynamics in the Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is important for many applications including encoding computing schemes. When considering the BZ reaction, there are limited studies dealing with thermal cycling, part... Read More about Thermal switch of oscillation frequency in Belousov–Zhabotinsky liquid marbles.

Mapping outcomes of liquid marble collisions (2019)
Journal Article
Draper, T. C., Fullarton, C., Mayne, R., Phillips, N., Canciani, G. E., de Lacy Costello, B. P. J., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Mapping outcomes of liquid marble collisions. Soft Matter, 15(17), 3541-3551. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9SM00328B

Liquid marbles (LMs) have many promising roles in the ongoing development of microfluidics, microreactors, bioreactors, and unconventional computing. In many of these applications, the coalescence of two LMs is either required or actively discouraged... Read More about Mapping outcomes of liquid marble collisions.

Towards experimental P-systems using multivesicular liposomes (2019)
Journal Article
Mayne, R., Phillips, N., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Towards experimental P-systems using multivesicular liposomes. Œ.., 1(1), 20-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41965-018-00006-7

P-systems are abstract computational models inspired by the phospholipid bilayer membranes generated by biological cells. Illustrated here is a mechanism by which recursive liposome structures (multivesicular liposomes) may be experimentally produced... Read More about Towards experimental P-systems using multivesicular liposomes.

Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in liquid marbles (2018)
Journal Article
Fullarton, C., Draper, T., Phillips, N., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in liquid marbles. Journal of Physics: Materials, 2(1), https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7639/aaed4c

In Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) type reactions, chemical oxidation waves can be exploited to produce reaction-diffusion processors. This paper reports on a new method of encapsulating BZ solution in a powder coating of either polyethylene (PE) or polyte... Read More about Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in liquid marbles.

Liquid marble actuator for microfluidic logic systems (2018)
Journal Article
Draper, T. C., Fullarton, C., Phillips, N., de Lacy Costello, B. P. J., & Adamatzky, A. (2018). Liquid marble actuator for microfluidic logic systems. Scientific Reports, 8(14153), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32540-w

A mechanical flip-flop actuator has been developed that allows for the facile re-routing and distribution of liquid marbles (LMs) in digital microfluidic devices. Shaped loosely like a triangle, the actuating switch pivots from one bistable position... Read More about Liquid marble actuator for microfluidic logic systems.

Hardware implementation of a biomimicking hybrid CA (2018)
Book Chapter
Madikas, M., Tsompanas, M., Dourvas, N., Sirakoulis, G., Jones, J., & Adamatzky, A. (2018). Hardware implementation of a biomimicking hybrid CA. In A. Dennunzio, K. Nishinari, L. Manzoni, G. Mauri, & S. El Yacoubi (Eds.), International Conference on Cellular AutomataSpringer Nature

A hybrid model, combining a Cellular Automaton (CA) and a multi-agent system, was proposed to mimic the computation abilities of the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum. This model was implemented on software, as well as, on hardware, namely on a Fie... Read More about Hardware implementation of a biomimicking hybrid CA.

Fluidic gates simulated with lattice Boltzmann method under different Reynolds numbers (2018)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M., & Andrew, A. (2018). Fluidic gates simulated with lattice Boltzmann method under different Reynolds numbers. Journal of Computational Science, 28, 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocs.2018.08.003

Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. Boolean values are represented by the presence of fluid jets in the input and output channels. Velocity of a fluid is one of the parameters determining Reynolds number of... Read More about Fluidic gates simulated with lattice Boltzmann method under different Reynolds numbers.

Street map analysis with excitable chemical medium (2018)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A. (2018). Street map analysis with excitable chemical medium. Physical Review E, 98(1), 012306. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.98.012306

Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) thin layer solution is a fruitful substrate for designing unconventional computing devices. A range of logical circuits, wet electronic devices, and neuromorphic prototypes have been constructed. Information processing in BZ... Read More about Street map analysis with excitable chemical medium.

Phase transitions in swarm optimization algorithms (2018)
Book Chapter
Adamatzky, A. (2018). Phase transitions in swarm optimization algorithms. In S. Stepney, & S. Verlan (Eds.), Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation, 204-2016. Spinrger

Natural systems often exhibit chaotic behavior in their space-time evolution. Systems transiting between chaos and order manifest a potential to compute, as shown with cellular automata and artificial neural networks. We demonstrate that swarms optim... Read More about Phase transitions in swarm optimization algorithms.

Mechanical sequential counting with liquid marbles (2018)
Journal Article
Draper, T., Fullarton, C., Phillips, N., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2018). Mechanical sequential counting with liquid marbles. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 10867, 59-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92435-9_5

Here we demonstrate the first working example of a liquid marble-operated sequential binary counting device. We have designed a lightweight gate that can be actuated by the low mass and momentum of a liquid marble. By linking a number of these gates... Read More about Mechanical sequential counting with liquid marbles.

A cilia-inspired closed-loop sensor-actuator array (2018)
Journal Article
Whiting, J., Mayne, R., Melhuish, C., & Adamatzky, A. (2018). A cilia-inspired closed-loop sensor-actuator array. Journal of Bionic Engineering, 15(3), 526-532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-018-0043-7

Cilia are finger-like cell-surface organelles that are used by certain varieties of aquatic unicellular organisms for motility, sensing and object manipulation. Initiated by internal generators and external mechanical and chemical stimuli, coordinate... Read More about A cilia-inspired closed-loop sensor-actuator array.

Modelling microbial fuel cells using Lattice Boltzmann methods (2018)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M. A., Adamatzky, A., Ieropoulos, I., Phillips, N., Sirakoulis, G., & Greenman, J. (in press). Modelling microbial fuel cells using Lattice Boltzmann methods. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, https://doi.org/10.1109/TCBB.2018.2831223

An accurate modelling of bio-electrochemical processes that govern Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) and mapping their behaviour according to several parameters will enhance the development of MFC technology and enable their successful implementation in we... Read More about Modelling microbial fuel cells using Lattice Boltzmann methods.

Slime mould: The fundamental mechanisms of biological cognition (2018)
Journal Article
Vallverdú, J., Castro, O., Mayne, R., Talanov, M., Levin, M., Baluška, F., …Adamatzky, A. (2018). Slime mould: The fundamental mechanisms of biological cognition. BioSystems, 165, 57-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2017.12.011

The slime mould Physarum polycephalum has been used in developing unconventional computing devices for in which the slime mould played a role of a sensing, actuating, and computing device. These devices treated the slime mould rather as an active liv... Read More about Slime mould: The fundamental mechanisms of biological cognition.

Evaporation, lifetime and robustness studies of liquid marbles for collision-based computing (2018)
Journal Article
Fullarton, C., Draper, T., Phillips, N., Mayne, R., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2018). Evaporation, lifetime and robustness studies of liquid marbles for collision-based computing. Langmuir, 34(7), 2573-2580. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b04196

Liquid marbles (LMs) have recently attracted interest for use as cargo carriers in digital microfluidics and have successfully been implemented as signal carriers in collisionbased unconventional computing circuits. Both application domains require L... Read More about Evaporation, lifetime and robustness studies of liquid marbles for collision-based computing.

Discovering Boolean gates in slime mould (2018)
Book Chapter
Adamatzky, A. (2018). Discovering Boolean gates in slime mould. In A. Adamatzky (Ed.), Inspired by nature, . Springer

Slime mould of Physarum polycephalum is a large cell exhibiting rich spatial non-linear electrical characteristics. We exploit the electrical properties of the slime mould to implement logic gates using a flexible hardware platform designed for inves... Read More about Discovering Boolean gates in slime mould.

Toxicity and applications of internalised magnetite nanoparticles within live Paramecium caudatum cells (2017)
Journal Article
Mayne, R., Whiting, J., & Adamatzky, A. (2017). Toxicity and applications of internalised magnetite nanoparticles within live Paramecium caudatum cells. BioNanoScience, 8(1), 90-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12668-017-0425-z

The nanotechnology revolution has allowed us to speculate on the possibility of hybridising nanoscale materials with live substrates, yet significant doubt still remains pertaining to the effects of nanomaterials on bio- logical matter. In this inves... Read More about Toxicity and applications of internalised magnetite nanoparticles within live Paramecium caudatum cells.