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Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

Adamatzky, A. I.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch; Georgilas, I. P.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Kalogeiton, V. S.; Kalogeiton, Vicky; Papadopoulos, Dim; Georgilas, Ioannis; Sirakoulis, Georgios; Adamatzky, Andrew


A. I. Adamatzky

G. Ch Sirakoulis

I. P. Georgilas

D. P. Papadopoulos

V. S. Kalogeiton

Vicky Kalogeiton

Dim Papadopoulos

Ioannis Georgilas

Georgios Sirakoulis


© 2015 Taylor & Francis. In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned biological laboratory experiments.


Adamatzky, A. I., Sirakoulis, G. C., Georgilas, I. P., Papadopoulos, D. P., Kalogeiton, V. S., Kalogeiton, V., …Adamatzky, A. (2015). Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould. International Journal of General Systems, 44(3), 354-391.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jan 1, 2015
Journal International Journal of General Systems
Print ISSN 0308-1079
Electronic ISSN 1563-5104
Publisher Taylor and Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 44
Issue 3
Pages 354-391
Keywords crowd evacuation, slime mould, cellular automaton
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