Research Repository

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Young carers in England: Findings from the 2018 BBC survey on the prevalence and nature of caring among young people (2019)
Journal Article
Joseph, S., Kendall, C., Toher, D., Sempik, J., Holland, J., & Becker, S. (2019). Young carers in England: Findings from the 2018 BBC survey on the prevalence and nature of caring among young people. Child: Care, Health and Development, 45(4), 606-612. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12674

Background: Many young people are involved in caring for parents, siblings, or other relatives who have an illness or disability. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of caring by young people in England. Method: A national survey of... Read More

Preliminary testing: The devil of statistics? (2019)
Journal Article
Pearce, J., & Derrick, B. (in press). Preliminary testing: The devil of statistics?

In quantitative research, the selection of the most appropriate statistical test for the comparison of two-independent samples can be problematic. There is a lack of consensus in the Statistics community regarding the appropriate approach; particular... Read More

Digging the optimum pit: Antlions, spirals and spontaneous stratification (2019)
Journal Article
Franks, N., Worley, A., Falkenberg, M., Sendova-Franks, A., & Christensen, K. (2019). Digging the optimum pit: Antlions, spirals and spontaneous stratification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 286(1899), 20190365. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0365

Most animal traps are constructed from self-secreted silk, so antlions are rare among trap builders because they use only materials found in the environment. We show how antlions exploit the properties of the substrate to produce very effective struc... Read More

Social flocculation in plant–animal worms (2019)
Journal Article
Worley, A., Sendova-Franks, A., & Franks, N. (in press). Social flocculation in plant–animal worms. Royal Society Open Science, 6(181626), https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181626

Individual animals can often move more safely or more efficiently as members of a group. This can be as simple as safety in numbers or as sophisticated as aerodynamic or hydrodynamic cooperation. Here, we show that individual plant–animal worms (Syms... Read More

Sensitive periods for the effect of childhood adversity on DNA methylation: Results from a prospective, longitudinal study (2019)
Journal Article
Dunn, E. C., Soare, T. W., Zhu, Y., Simpkin, A. J., Suderman, M. J., Klengel, T., …Relton, C. L. (2019). Sensitive periods for the effect of childhood adversity on DNA methylation: Results from a prospective, longitudinal study. Biological Psychiatry, 85(10), 838-849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.12.023

Background: Exposure to "early life" adversity is known to predict DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns that may be related to psychiatric risk. However, few studies have investigated whether adversity has time-dependent effects based on the age at exposu... Read More

Feeding tube securement in critical illness: Implications for safety (2018)
Journal Article
Taylor, S., Allan, K., Clemente, R., Marsh, A., & Toher, D. (2018). Feeding tube securement in critical illness: Implications for safety. British Journal of Nursing, 27(18), 1036-1041. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2018.27.18.1036

Over 50 % of tape-secured feeding tubes are inadvertently lost. The impact of nasal bridle securement on nasogastric (NG) and nasointestinal (NI) tube loss, outcome and duration of use was determined from 1 October 2014 (NG) and 1 January 2010 respec... Read More

Genomic profiling of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant initial and matched recurrent glioblastomas reveals clinically actionable mutations (e.g. BRCA1/2) and resistance signatures (2018)
Journal Article
McInerney, C. E., Ellis, H. P., Schrimpf, D., Sahm, F., Stupnikov, A., Wadsley, M., …Kurian, K. M. (2018). Genomic profiling of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant initial and matched recurrent glioblastomas reveals clinically actionable mutations (e.g. BRCA1/2) and resistance signatures. Neuro-Oncology, 20(3), iii215-iii216. https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noy139.003

Abstract: Background: Glioblastomas account for 90% of all adult brain tumours. Patient survival remains low because treatments are ineffective against this lethal disease. Understanding the genes and pathways altered in subtypes is necessary for th... Read More

An outlier in an independent samples design (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B. (2018, September). An outlier in an independent samples design. Paper presented at Royal Statistical Society Conference

There is a flaw with some of the most commonly performed statistical tests. A paradox of the one sample t-test is the contrariwise decrease in the p-value as the value of an outlier increases in the direction of the overall effect. Demonstration of t... Read More

Results of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial of melatonin for treatment of nocturia in adults with multiple sclerosis (MeNiMS) (2018)
Journal Article
Drake, M., Canham, L., Cotterill, N., Delgado, D., Homewood, J., Inglis, K., …Cottrell, D. (2018). Results of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial of melatonin for treatment of nocturia in adults with multiple sclerosis (MeNiMS). BMC Neurology, 18(107), https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1114-4

Background: Nocturia is a common urinary symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) which can affect quality of life (QoL) adversely. Melatonin is a hormone known to regulate circadian rhythm and reduce smooth muscle activity such as in the bladder. There... Read More

Time to Initial Debridement and wound Excision (TIDE) in severe open tibial fractures and related clinical outcome: A multi-centre study (2018)
Journal Article
Hendrickson, S. A., Wall, R. A., Manley, O., Gibson, W., Toher, D., Wallis, K., …Khan, U. (2018). Time to Initial Debridement and wound Excision (TIDE) in severe open tibial fractures and related clinical outcome: A multi-centre study. Injury, 49(10), 1922-1926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2018.07.023

Background Recent national (NICE) guidelines in England recommend that initial debridement and wound excision of open tibial fractures take place within 12 hours of the time of injury, a change from the previous target of 24 hours. This study aims t... Read More

Plant–animal worms round themselves up in circular mills on the beach (2018)
Journal Article
Sendova-Franks, A., Franks, N., & Worley, A. (2018). Plant–animal worms round themselves up in circular mills on the beach. Royal Society Open Science, 5(180665), https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180665

Collective motion is a fascinating and intensely studied manifestation of collective behaviour. Circular milling is an impressive example. It occurs in fishes, processionary caterpillars and army ants, among others. Its adaptive significance, however... Read More

To preliminary test or not to preliminary test, that is the question (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Derrick, B. (2018, July). To preliminary test or not to preliminary test, that is the question

Despite the consequences of violations to the assumptions of statistical tests, there is often neglect in published works to report on the assumptions of the tests performed. Preliminary testing the assumptions prior to preforming the test is done ro... Read More

Establishing the usefulness of the GO-QOL in a UK hospital-treated population with thyroid eye disease in the CIRTED trial (2018)
Journal Article
Jackson, S., Dietrich, A., Taylor, P., White, P., Wilson, V., Uddin, J., …Dayan, C. (2018). Establishing the usefulness of the GO-QOL in a UK hospital-treated population with thyroid eye disease in the CIRTED trial. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 23(S1), 1341-1355. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1503693

Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a potentially sight-threatening and cosmetically disfiguring condition arising in 25-50% of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. CIRTED is the first study to evaluate the long-term role of radiotherapy and prolonged imm... Read More

Recurrence rates in primary spontaneous pneumothorax: A systematic review and meta-analysis (2018)
Journal Article
Walker, S., Bibby, A., Halford, P., Stadon, L., White, P., & Maskell, N. (2018). Recurrence rates in primary spontaneous pneumothorax: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal, 52(3), 1800864. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00864-2018

Abstract Background Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax (PSP) recurrence rates vary widely in the published literature, with limited data describing the factors that influence recurrence. The aims of this systematic review were to determine an estima... Read More

Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations (2018)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., Ruck, A., Toher, D., & White, P. (2018). Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations

Tests for equality of variances between two samples which contain both paired observations and independent observations are explored using simulation. New solutions which make use of all of the available data are put forward. These new approaches are... Read More

Parametric and non-parametric tests for the comparison of two samples which both include paired and unpaired observations (2018)
Journal Article
Derrick, B., White, P., & Toher, D. (2018). Parametric and non-parametric tests for the comparison of two samples which both include paired and unpaired observations

Samples that include both independent and paired observations cause a dilemma for researchers that covers the full breadth of empirical research. Parametric approaches for the comparison of two samples using all available observations are considered,... Read More

Asymmetric ommatidia count and behavioural lateralization in the ant Temnothorax albipennis (2018)
Journal Article
Hunt, E., Dornan, S., Sendova-Franks, A., & Franks, N. (2018). Asymmetric ommatidia count and behavioural lateralization in the ant Temnothorax albipennis. Scientific Reports, 8, 5825. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23652-4

Workers of the house-hunting ant Temnothorax albipennis rely on visual edge following and landmark recognition to navigate their rocky environment, and they also exhibit a leftward turning bias when exploring unknown nest sites. We used electron micr... Read More

Exposure to childhood adversity and deficits in emotion recognition: Results from a large population-based sample (2018)
Journal Article
Dunn, E. C., Crawford, K. M., Soare, T. W., Button, K. S., Raffeld, M. R., Smith, A. D. A. C., …Munafò, M. R. (2018). Exposure to childhood adversity and deficits in emotion recognition: Results from a large population-based sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59(8), 845-854. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12881

Background: Emotion recognition skills are essential for social communication. Deficits in these skills have been implicated in mental disorders. Prior studies of clinical and high-risk samples have consistently shown that children exposed to adversi... Read More

What life course theoretical models best explain the relationship between exposure to childhood adversity and psychopathology symptoms: Recency, accumulation, or sensitive periods? (2018)
Journal Article
Dunn, E. C., Soare, T. W., Raffeld, M. R., Busso, D. S., Crawford, K. M., Fisher, V. A., …Susser, E. S. (2018). What life course theoretical models best explain the relationship between exposure to childhood adversity and psychopathology symptoms: Recency, accumulation, or sensitive periods?. Psychological Medicine, 48(15), 2562-2572. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718000181

Background: Although childhood adversity is a potent determinant of psychopathology, relatively little is known about how the characteristics of adversity exposure, including its developmental timing or duration, influence subsequent mental health ou... Read More