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The development and validation of the Threat of Dementia Scale

Cheston, Richard; Dodd, Emily; Christopher, Gary; White, Paul; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

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Gary Christopher
Occasional Associate Lecturer - CHSS - AHP

Paul White
Professor in Applied Statistics

Tim Wildschut

Constantine Sedikides


Dementia represents a substantial threat to the self. However, to date, there is no reliable way to measure how threatened people feel by dementia. This article reports on two online studies. In Study 1, 248 participants rated statements about dementia according to their threat to well-being. In Study 2, 99 participants (all students at the University of the West of England) completed the emerging scale (the Threat of Dementia Scale or ToDS). We validated this by examining its associations with conceptually related measures, including the revised Fraboni Scale of Ageism and the Fear of Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Study 1 yielded 13 statements that were highly intercorrelated and comprised a single factor. In Study 2, the ToDS demonstrated good construct validity and acceptable test–retest reliability. Higher levels of distancing predicted lower scores on the ToDS. The ToDS is a reliable and valid instrument that is the first statistically validated method of examining the extent to which dementia threatens well-being.


Cheston, R., Dodd, E., Christopher, G., White, P., Wildschut, T., & Sedikides, C. (2022). The development and validation of the Threat of Dementia Scale. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 94(4), 496-514.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 28, 2020
Online Publication Date Sep 25, 2020
Publication Date Jun 1, 2022
Deposit Date Jul 28, 2020
Publicly Available Date Sep 28, 2020
Journal International Journal of Aging and Human Development
Print ISSN 0091-4150
Electronic ISSN 1541-3535
Publisher SAGE Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 94
Issue 4
Pages 496-514
Keywords dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, identity, scales, threat
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