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Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Testing in Fast-Track Patients with Suspected Colorectal Cancer (2022)
Journal Article
Boulind, C. E., Gould, O., Costello, B. D. L., Allison, J., White, P., Ewings, P., …Francis, N. K. (2022). Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Testing in Fast-Track Patients with Suspected Colorectal Cancer. Cancers, 14(9), 2127. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092127

Colorectal symptoms are common but only infrequently represent serious pathology, including colorectal cancer (CRC). A large number of invasive tests are presently performed for reassurance. We investigated the feasibility of urinary volatile organic... Read More about Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Testing in Fast-Track Patients with Suspected Colorectal Cancer.

Investigation of urinary volatile organic compounds as novel diagnostic and surveillance biomarkers of bladder cancer (2022)
Journal Article
Lett, L., George, M., Slater, R., De Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N., García-Fiñana, M., …Probert, C. (2022). Investigation of urinary volatile organic compounds as novel diagnostic and surveillance biomarkers of bladder cancer. British Journal of Cancer, 127(2), 329-336. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-022-01785-8

Background: The diagnosis and surveillance of urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) require cystoscopy. There is a need for biomarkers to reduce the frequency of cystoscopy in surveillance; urinary volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis could fulfil this... Read More about Investigation of urinary volatile organic compounds as novel diagnostic and surveillance biomarkers of bladder cancer.

Hyphenated mass spectrometry versus real‐time mass spectrometry techniques for the detection of volatile compounds from the human body (2021)
Journal Article
Gould, O., Drabińska, N., Ratcliffe, N., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2021). Hyphenated mass spectrometry versus real‐time mass spectrometry techniques for the detection of volatile compounds from the human body. Molecules, 26(23), Article 7185. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237185

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that can be used for various applications in a number of scientific areas including environmental, security, forensic science, space exploration, agri‐food, and numerous others. MS is also continuing... Read More about Hyphenated mass spectrometry versus real‐time mass spectrometry techniques for the detection of volatile compounds from the human body.

Application of a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/metal oxide sensor system for detection of antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infection-causing Escherichia coli – A proof of principle study (2021)
Journal Article
Drabińska, N., Hewett, K., White, P., Avison, M., Persad, R., Ratcliffe, N., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2021). Application of a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/metal oxide sensor system for detection of antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infection-causing Escherichia coli – A proof of principle study. Advances in Medical Sciences, 67(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2021.09.001

Purpose: Antibiotic resistance is widespread throughout the world and represents a serious health concern. There is an urgent need for the development of novel tools for rapidly distinguishing antibiotic resistant bacteria from susceptible strains. P... Read More about Application of a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/metal oxide sensor system for detection of antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infection-causing Escherichia coli – A proof of principle study.

A literature survey of all volatiles from healthy human breath and bodily fluids: The human volatilome (2021)
Journal Article
Drabińska, N., Flynn, C., Ratcliffe, N., Belluomo, I., Myridakis, A., Gould, O., …Costello, B. D. L. (2021). A literature survey of all volatiles from healthy human breath and bodily fluids: The human volatilome. Journal of Breath Research, 15(3), 034001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/abf1d0

This paper comprises an updated version of the 2014 review which reported 1846 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified from healthy humans. In total over 900 additional VOCs have been reported since the 2014 review and the VOCs from semen have b... Read More about A literature survey of all volatiles from healthy human breath and bodily fluids: The human volatilome.

Rare earth doped metal oxide sensor for the multimodal detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (2020)
Journal Article
Fois, M., Cox, T., Ratcliffe, N., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2021). Rare earth doped metal oxide sensor for the multimodal detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 330, Article 129264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2020.129264

Heated metal oxide sensors have been widely studied for their ability to give a reversible change in the electrical resistance following the interaction with a volatile compound. Another feature is their inherent cataluminescence (CTL) properties whe... Read More about Rare earth doped metal oxide sensor for the multimodal detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Towards the identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infections using volatile organic compounds analysis—a pilot study (2020)
Journal Article
Hewett, K., Drabinska, N., White, P., Avison, M., Persad, R., Ratcliffe, N., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2020). Towards the identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infections using volatile organic compounds analysis—a pilot study. Antibiotics, 9(11), 797. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110797

Antibiotic resistance is an unprecedented threat to modern medicine. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bacteria potentially offers a rapid way to determine antibiotic susceptibility in bacteria. This study aimed to find the optim... Read More about Towards the identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infections using volatile organic compounds analysis—a pilot study.

Breath analysis for detection of viral infection, the current position of the field (2020)
Journal Article
Gould, O., Ratcliffe, N., Król, E., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2020). Breath analysis for detection of viral infection, the current position of the field. Journal of Breath Research, 14(4), https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7163/ab9c32

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid, cost effective, accurate, and non-invasive testing for viral infections. Volatile compounds (VCs) have been suggested for several decades as fulfilling these criteria. However currently v... Read More about Breath analysis for detection of viral infection, the current position of the field.

Contactless sensing of liquid marbles for detection, characterisation & computing (2019)
Journal Article
Draper, T. C., Phillips, N., Weerasekera, R., Mayne, R., Fullarton, C., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2020). Contactless sensing of liquid marbles for detection, characterisation & computing. Lab on a Chip, 20(1), 136-146. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9lc01001g

Liquid marbles (LMs) are of growing interest in many fields, including microfluidics, microreactors, sensors, and signal carriers. The generation of LMs is generally performed manually, although there has recently been a burst of publications involvi... Read More about Contactless sensing of liquid marbles for detection, characterisation & computing.

Sensors for determining volatile compounds based on electrical conductivity and cataluminescence measurements of metal oxide films (2019)
Patent

The invention relates to the field of sensors for detecting volatile compounds. The sensor of the present invention for detecting volatile compounds comprises: a film of metal oxide; a heater configured to provide heat energy to the film of metal oxi... Read More about Sensors for determining volatile compounds based on electrical conductivity and cataluminescence measurements of metal oxide films.

Neuromorphic liquid marbles with aqueous carbon nanotube cores (2019)
Journal Article
Mayne, R., Draper, T. C., Phillips, N., Whiting, J. G. H., Weerasekera, R., Fullarton, C., …Adamatzky, A. (2019). Neuromorphic liquid marbles with aqueous carbon nanotube cores. Langmuir, 35, 13182-13188. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b02552

Neuromorphic computing devices attempt to emulate features of biological nervous systems through mimicking the properties of synapses, towards implementing the emergent properties of their counterparts, such as learning. Inspired by recent advances i... Read More about Neuromorphic liquid marbles with aqueous carbon nanotube cores.

From fast identification to resistance testing: Volatile compound profiling as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of antibiotic susceptibility (2019)
Journal Article
Smart, A., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N., Drabinksa, N., & Hewett, K. (2019). From fast identification to resistance testing: Volatile compound profiling as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of antibiotic susceptibility. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 115, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2019.03.019

Widespread use of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in many pathogenic bacteria. If effective methods of alleviating this crisis are not applied, a return to high mortality and morbidity of the pre-antibiotic era could o... Read More about From fast identification to resistance testing: Volatile compound profiling as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of antibiotic susceptibility.

Sniffing out resistance – Rapid identification of urinary tract infection-causing bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility using volatile metabolite profiles (2019)
Journal Article

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Antibiotic resistance is set to be an unprecedented threat to modern medicine. ‘Sniffing’ bacteria potentially offers a rapid way to determine susceptibility. A successful proof-of-principle study is described, using thermal deso... Read More about Sniffing out resistance – Rapid identification of urinary tract infection-causing bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility using volatile metabolite profiles.

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) quantification of metabolites in stool using13 C labelled compounds (2018)
Journal Article

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. It has become increasingly important to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the volatile metabolites in a range of bodily fluids for use in monitoring health. There has been relatively lit... Read More about Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) quantification of metabolites in stool using13 C labelled compounds.

Assessment of a combined gas chromatography mass spectrometer sensor system for detecting biologically relevant volatile compounds (2017)
Journal Article

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd. There have been a number of studies in which metal oxide sensors (MOS) have replaced conventional analytical detectors in gas chromatography systems. However, despite the use of these instruments in a range of applications... Read More about Assessment of a combined gas chromatography mass spectrometer sensor system for detecting biologically relevant volatile compounds.

The use of a gas chromatography-sensor system combined with advanced statistical methods, towards the diagnosis of urological malignancies (2016)
Journal Article

© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to aid the selection of men undergoing biopsies. Its use remains controversial. We propose a GC-sensor algorithm system for cl... Read More about The use of a gas chromatography-sensor system combined with advanced statistical methods, towards the diagnosis of urological malignancies.

Slime mould memristors (2015)
Journal Article

In laboratory experiments we demonstrate that protoplasmic tubes of acellular slime mould \emph{Physarum polycephalum} show current versus voltage profiles consistent with memristive systems and that the effect is due to the living protoplasm of the... Read More about Slime mould memristors.

The use of a gas chromatograph coupled to a metal oxide sensor for rapid assessment of stool samples from irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease patients (2014)
Journal Article

There is much clinical interest in the development of a low-cost and reliable test for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), two very distinct diseases that can present with similar symptoms. The assessment o... Read More about The use of a gas chromatograph coupled to a metal oxide sensor for rapid assessment of stool samples from irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease patients.

Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection (2014)
Journal Article

Rapid volatile profiling of stool sample headspace was achieved using a combination of short multi-capillary chromatography column (SMCC), highly sensitive heated metal oxide semiconductor sensor and artificial neural network software. For direct ana... Read More about Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection.

Towards slime mould chemical sensor: Mapping chemical inputs onto electrical potential dynamics of Physarum Polycephalum (2013)
Journal Article

Plasmodium of slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large single celled organism visible unaided by the eye. This slime mould is capable of optimising the shape of its protoplasmic networks in spatial configurations of attractants and repellents. Su... Read More about Towards slime mould chemical sensor: Mapping chemical inputs onto electrical potential dynamics of Physarum Polycephalum.

Breath volatile analysis from patients diagnosed with harmful drinking, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: A pilot study (2013)
Journal Article

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric state potentially complicating cirrhosis following the accumulation of toxic compounds that cross the blood-brain barrier and affect brain function; the compounds may undergo alveolar gas exchange and... Read More about Breath volatile analysis from patients diagnosed with harmful drinking, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: A pilot study.

An investigation of volatile organic compounds from the saliva of healthy individuals using headspace-trap/GC-MS (2013)
Journal Article

Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from saliva, to aid disease diagnoses, has received little attention. This work aims to address the paucity of information on saliva volatiles and includes a database of newly identified compounds whilst... Read More about An investigation of volatile organic compounds from the saliva of healthy individuals using headspace-trap/GC-MS.

A Pilot Study Combining a GC-Sensor Device with a Statistical Model for the Identification of Bladder Cancer from Urine Headspace (2013)
Journal Article

There is a need to reduce the number of cystoscopies on patients with haematuria. Presently there are no reliable biomarkers to screen for bladder cancer. In this paper, we evaluate a new simple in-house fabricated, GC-sensor device in the diagnosis... Read More about A Pilot Study Combining a GC-Sensor Device with a Statistical Model for the Identification of Bladder Cancer from Urine Headspace.

Does the D.C. response of memristors allow robotic short-term memory and a possible route to artificial time perception? (2013)
Presentation / Conference Contribution

Time perception is essential for task switching, and in the mammalian brain appears alongside other processes. Memristors are electronic components used as synapses and as models for neurons. The d.c. response of memristors can be considered as a typ... Read More about Does the D.C. response of memristors allow robotic short-term memory and a possible route to artificial time perception?.

Design of a hybrid robot control system using memristor-model and ant-inspired based information transfer protocols (2013)
Presentation / Conference Contribution

It is not always possible for a robot to process all the information from its sensors in a timely manner and thus quick and yet valid approximations of the robot's situation are needed. Here we design hybrid control for a robot within this limit usin... Read More about Design of a hybrid robot control system using memristor-model and ant-inspired based information transfer protocols.

Beyond Markov chains, towards adaptive memristor network-based music generation (2013)
Presentation / Conference
Gale, E., Matthews, O., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2013, April). Beyond Markov chains, towards adaptive memristor network-based music generation. Paper presented at First AISB symposium on Music and Unconventional Computing, University of Exeter, UK

We undertook a study of the use of a memristor network for music generation, making use of the memristor's memory to go beyond the Markov hypothesis. Seed transition matrices are created and populated using memristor equations, and which are shown to... Read More about Beyond Markov chains, towards adaptive memristor network-based music generation.

Toward turing’s A-type unorganised machines in an unconventional substrate: A dynamic representation in compartmentalised excitable chemical media (2013)
Book Chapter

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. Turing presented a general representation scheme by which to achieve artificial intelligence – unorganised machines. Significantly, these were a form of discrete dynamical system and yet such representations... Read More about Toward turing’s A-type unorganised machines in an unconventional substrate: A dynamic representation in compartmentalised excitable chemical media.

Evolution of plastic learning in spiking networks via memristive connections (2012)
Journal Article
Howard, G., Howard, D., Gale, E., Bull, L., De Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2012). Evolution of plastic learning in spiking networks via memristive connections. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 16(5), 711-729. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEVC.2011.2170199

This paper presents a spiking neuroevolutionary system which implements memristors as plastic connections, i.e., whose weights can vary during a trial. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and variable topologies, allowi... Read More about Evolution of plastic learning in spiking networks via memristive connections.

Creating unorganised machines from memristors (2012)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Bull, L., Costello, B. D. L., & Adamatzky, A. (2012, September). Creating unorganised machines from memristors. Paper presented at ICNAAM 2012: International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, Kos, Greece

Fabrication and modelling of titanium dioxide memristors (2012)
Presentation / Conference
Gale, E., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2012, June). Fabrication and modelling of titanium dioxide memristors. Poster presented at Royal Society of Chemistry, Younger Members Symposium 2012, Nottingham, UK

Concept – including filamentary conduction in the mem-mon theory of memristance improves the model for ‘triangular’ memristors

Filamentary extension of the mem-con theory of memristance and its application to titanium dioxide sol-gel memristors (2012)
Working Paper
Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. Filamentary extension of the mem-con theory of memristance and its application to titanium dioxide sol-gel memristors. Bristol

Titanium dioxide sol-gel memristors have two different modes of operation, believed to be dependent on whether there is bulk memristance, i.e. memristance throughout the whole volume or filamentary memristance, i.e. memristance caused by the connecti... Read More about Filamentary extension of the mem-con theory of memristance and its application to titanium dioxide sol-gel memristors.

The effect of electrode size on memristor properties: an experimental and theoretical study (2012)
Working Paper
Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. The effect of electrode size on memristor properties: an experimental and theoretical study. Bristol

The width of the electrodes is not included in the current phenomenological models of memristance, but is included in the memory-conservation (mem-con) theory of memristance. An experimental study of the effect of changing the top electrode width was... Read More about The effect of electrode size on memristor properties: an experimental and theoretical study.

Computing with liquid crystal fingers: Models of geometric and logical computation (2011)
Journal Article
Younger, D., Matranga, M. A., Kitson, S., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2011). Computing with liquid crystal fingers: Models of geometric and logical computation. Physical Review E, 84(6), https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.061702

When a voltage is applied across a thin layer of cholesteric liquid crystal, fingers of cholesteric alignment can form and propagate in the layer. In computer simulation, based on experimental laboratory results, we demonstrate that these cholesteric... Read More about Computing with liquid crystal fingers: Models of geometric and logical computation.

Comparison of ant-inspired gatherer allocation approaches using memristor-based environmental models (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, December). Comparison of ant-inspired gatherer allocation approaches using memristor-based environmental models. Paper presented at Bioadcom 2011 Workshop on Bio-inspired Approaches to Advanced Computing and Communications (BioAdcom2011), York, England

Memristors are used to compare three gathering techniques in an already-mapped environment where resource locations are known. The All Site model, which apportions gatherers based on the modeled memristance of that path, proves to be good at increasi... Read More about Comparison of ant-inspired gatherer allocation approaches using memristor-based environmental models.

Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks (2011)
Journal Article
Holley, J., Jahan, I., De Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Adamatzky, A. (2011). Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks. Physical Review E, 84(5), 056110. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.84.056110

Excitation waves on a subexcitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) substrate can be manipulated by chemical variations in the substrate and by interactions with other waves. Symbolic assignment and interpretation of wave dynamics can be used to perform log... Read More about Logical and arithmetic circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated disks.

Neuromorphic computing with memristors: Preliminary experimental results (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, November). Neuromorphic computing with memristors: Preliminary experimental results. Poster presented at Building Bridges to Build Brains, Edinburgh

Individual memristors have been observed demonstrating neuron-like spiking patterns. It has been shown elsewhere that memristors provide superior modelling for neurons then the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to these results we expect memristors to be e... Read More about Neuromorphic computing with memristors: Preliminary experimental results.

On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., Holley, J., Bull, L., & De Lacy Costello, B. (2011). On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 44(10), 779-790. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2011.03.010

We introduce results of computer experiments on information processing in a hexagonal array of vesicles filled with Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) solution in a sub-excitable mode. We represent values of Boolean variables by excitation wave-fragments and... Read More about On computing in fine-grained compartmentalised Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium.

Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Holley, J., Gorecki, J., & Bull, L. (2011). Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 44(7), 480-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2011.01.016

Irregular arrangements of vesicles filled with excitable and precipitating chemical systems are imitated by Voronoi automata - finite-state machines defined on a planar Voronoi diagram. Every Voronoi cell takes four states: resting, excited, refracto... Read More about Vesicle computers: Approximating a Voronoi diagram using Voronoi automata.

Aluminium electrodes effect the operation of titanium oxide sol-gel memristors (2011)
Working Paper
Gale, E., Pearson, D., Kitson, S., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. Aluminium electrodes effect the operation of titanium oxide sol-gel memristors. Bristol

By a comparison between memristors made with aluminium and gold electrodes, this letter demonstrates that aluminium electrodes are an essential component of the TiO$_2$ sol-gel flexible memristor . Both slow varying `analogue' and sudden switching `d... Read More about Aluminium electrodes effect the operation of titanium oxide sol-gel memristors.

Evolving spiking networks with variable memristors (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Gale, E., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, June). Evolving spiking networks with variable memristors. Paper presented at 13th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation

Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses (2011)
Presentation / Conference
Howard, G. D., Gale, E., Bull, L., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2011, April). Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses. Paper presented at IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life (ALIFE), 2011, Paris, France

This paper presents a spiking neuro-evolutionary system which implements memristors as neuromodulatory connections, ie whose weights can vary during a trial. The evolutionary design process exploits parameter self-adaptation and a constructionist app... Read More about Towards evolving spiking networks with memristive synapses.

Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium (2011)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Adamatzky, A., Jahan, I., & Zhang, L. (2011). Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium. Chemical Physics, 381(1-3), 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2011.01.014

The light-sensitive modification (ruthenium catalysed) of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction exhibits various excitability regimes depending on the level of illumination. Within a narrow range of applied illumination levels the medium is in a sub-exci... Read More about Towards constructing one-bit binary adder in excitable chemical medium.

Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles (2011)
Journal Article
Holley, J., Adamatzky, A., Bull, L., De Lacy Costello, B., & Jahan, I. (2011). Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles. Nano Communication Networks, 2(1), 50-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nancom.2011.02.002

We present both simulated and partial empirical evidences for the computational utility of many connected vesicle analogues of an encapsulated nonlinear chemical processing medium. By connecting small vesicles containing a solution of sub-excitable B... Read More about Computational modalities of Belousov-Zhabotinsky encapsulated vesicles.

Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Holley, J. (2011). Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media. Israel Journal of Chemistry, 51(1), 56-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijch.201000046

A sub-excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium exhibits localized travelling excitations (in contrast to an excitable medium exhibiting target or spiral waves). Initially assymetric perturbations give birth to excitation wave-fragments. The shape and ve... Read More about Towards arithmetic circuits in sub-excitable chemical media.

On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium (2011)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2011). On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 21(07), 1977-1986. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127411029574

In a subexcitable light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical medium an asymmetric disturbance causes the formation of localized traveling wave-fragments. Under the right conditions these wave-fragments can conserve their shape and velocity ve... Read More about On polymorphic logical gates in subexcitable chemical medium.

On the internalisation, intraplasmodial carriage and excretion of metallic nanoparticles in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum (2011)
Journal Article
Mayne, R., Patton, D., Costello, B. D. L., Adamatzky, A., & Patton, R. C. (2011). On the internalisation, intraplasmodial carriage and excretion of metallic nanoparticles in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum. International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation, 3(3), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijnmc.2011070101

The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible with the naked eye. When inoculated on a substrate with attractants and repellents the plasmodium develops optimal networks of protoplasmic tubes which span sites of attractants (... Read More about On the internalisation, intraplasmodial carriage and excretion of metallic nanoparticles in the slime mould, Physarum polycephalum.

Investigation of the semiochemicals of confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Jaquelin du Val and grain weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) in stored wheat grain and flour (2010)
Presentation / Conference
Abuelnnor, N., Jones, P., Ratcliffe, N. M., de Lacy Costello, B., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2010, June). Investigation of the semiochemicals of confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Jaquelin du Val and grain weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) in stored wheat grain and flour. Paper presented at 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Estoril Congress Center, Portugal

This investigation sets out to identify specific volatile compounds from both flour infested with the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum and wheat grain infested with the grain weevil, Sitophilus granarius. These volatiles could help to aid th... Read More about Investigation of the semiochemicals of confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Jaquelin du Val and grain weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) in stored wheat grain and flour.

Gas sensor (2010)
Patent

A method of detection of a volatile compound in a gaseous atmosphere comprises irradiating a semiconducting metal oxide material with ultraviolet light, exposing the irradiated material to the gaseous atmosphere and determining the presence of any vo... Read More about Gas sensor.

Chemical tessellations - Results of binary and tertiary reactions between metal ions and ferricyanide or ferrocyanide loaded gels (2010)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Jahan, I., Hambidge, P., Locking, K., Patel, D., & Adamatzky, A. (2010). Chemical tessellations - Results of binary and tertiary reactions between metal ions and ferricyanide or ferrocyanide loaded gels. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 20(7), 2241-2252. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127410027064

In our recent letter [de Lacy Costello et al., 2009] we described the formation of spontaneous complex tessellations of the plane constructed in simple chemical reactions between drops of metal salts and ferricyanide or ferrocyanide loaded gels. In t... Read More about Chemical tessellations - Results of binary and tertiary reactions between metal ions and ferricyanide or ferrocyanide loaded gels.

Reaction-diffusion controllers for robots (2009)
Book Chapter
Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Yokoi, H. (2009). Reaction-diffusion controllers for robots. In A. Adamatzky, & M. Komosinski (Eds.), Artificial Life Models in Hardware (233-264). London: Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84882-530-7_11

Excitable systems, particularly spatially extended media, exhibit a wide variety of travelling patterns and different modes of interaction. The Belousov-Zhabo-tinsky [1] (BZ) reaction is the most well known and extensively studied example of non-line... Read More about Reaction-diffusion controllers for robots.

Analysis of faecal volatile organic compounds in preterm infants who develop necrotising enterocolitis: A pilot study (2009)
Journal Article
Garner, C. E., Ewer, A. K., Elasouad, K., Power, F., Greenwood, R., Ratcliffe, N. M., …Probert, C. S. (2009). Analysis of faecal volatile organic compounds in preterm infants who develop necrotising enterocolitis: A pilot study. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 49(5), 559-565. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181a3bfbc

OBJECTIVE:: To determine differences in the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in faecal samples from preterm infants who develop necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) compared with non-NEC controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Daily faecal samples... Read More about Analysis of faecal volatile organic compounds in preterm infants who develop necrotising enterocolitis: A pilot study.

Experimental validation of binary collisions between wave fragments in the photosensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction (2009)
Journal Article
Toth, R., Stone, C., Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2009). Experimental validation of binary collisions between wave fragments in the photosensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 41(4), 1605-1615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2008.07.001

Using the examples of an excitable chemical system (the Belousov–Zhabotinsky medium) and plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum we show that universal computation in a geometrically unconstrained medium is only possible when resources (excitability or c... Read More about Experimental validation of binary collisions between wave fragments in the photosensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction.

Experimental validation of binary collisions between wave fragments in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction (2009)
Journal Article
Toth, R., Stone, C., Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2009). Experimental validation of binary collisions between wave fragments in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 41(4), 1605-1615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2008.07.001

We present experimental verification of wave fragment collisions in the sub-excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium observed previously in simulation [Adamatzky A, De Lacy Costello B. Binary collisions between wave fragments in a sub-excitable Belousov... Read More about Experimental validation of binary collisions between wave fragments in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath from liver cirrhotics (2009)
Presentation / Conference
Khalid, T., Ratcliffe, N. M., de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., White, P., Shenoy, A., & Probert, C. (2009, April). Analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath from liver cirrhotics. Paper presented at BREATH 2009 International Conference on Breath and Breath Odor Research, Dortmund, Germany

Volatiles from oral anaerobes (2009)
Presentation / Conference
Khalid, T., Ratcliffe, N. M., de Lacy Costello, B., Greenman, J., & Saad, S. (2009, April). Volatiles from oral anaerobes. Paper presented at BREATH 2009 International Conference on Breath and Breath Odor Research, Dortmund Germany

The measurement of breath volatiles for correlation with blood glucose levels and an assessment of their usefulness in diagnosing and managing diabetes (2009)
Presentation / Conference
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Garner, K., Probert, C., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Stevens, S. (2009, April). The measurement of breath volatiles for correlation with blood glucose levels and an assessment of their usefulness in diagnosing and managing diabetes. Paper presented at BREATH 2009 International Conference on Breath and Breath Odor Research, Dortmund, Germany

Spiral formation and degeneration in heterogeneous excitable media (2009)
Journal Article
Toth, R., De Lacy Costello, B., Stone, C., Masere, J., Adamatzky, A., & Bull, L. (2009). Spiral formation and degeneration in heterogeneous excitable media. Physical Review E, 79(3), 035101(R) (4 pages). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.79.035101

Spontaneous spiral formation occurs when an excitation wave is input to a heterogeneous network of low- and high-light-intensity cells projected onto a light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The range of network conditions where spirals form... Read More about Spiral formation and degeneration in heterogeneous excitable media.

Implementation of glider guns in the light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium (2009)
Journal Article
De Lacy Costello, B., Toth, R., Stone, C., Adamatzky, A., & Bull, L. (2009). Implementation of glider guns in the light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium. Physical Review E, 79(2), 026114. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.79.026114

In cellular automata models a glider gun is an oscillating pattern of nonquiescent states that periodically emits traveling localizations (gliders). The glider streams can be combined to construct functionally complete systems of logical gates and th... Read More about Implementation of glider guns in the light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium.

Reaction diffusion computers (2009)
Book
Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Asai, T. (2009). Reaction diffusion computers. Springer Verlag, London

Chemical tessellations (2009)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Jahan, I., Adamatzky, A., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2009). Chemical tessellations. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 19(2), 619-622. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127409023238

We report a simple set of chemical reactions based on the reaction of a range of metal salts with potassium ferricyanide loaded gels that spontaneously produce complex and colorful tessellations of the plane. These reactions provide a great resource... Read More about Chemical tessellations.

Fine control and selection of travelling waves in Inorganic Pattern Forming Reactions (2009)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Jahan, I., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Armstrong, J. (2009). Fine control and selection of travelling waves in Inorganic Pattern Forming Reactions. International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation, 1(3), 26-36. https://doi.org/10.4018/jnmc.2009070103

Under normal reaction conditions [AlCl3 0.28-0.34M and NaOH 2.5M A.Volford et al.] spontaneous spiral and circular travelling precipitate waves were observed. We constructed a phase diagram for the reaction and identified a large controllable region... Read More about Fine control and selection of travelling waves in Inorganic Pattern Forming Reactions.

Dynamic control and information processing in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction using a coevolutionary algorithm (2008)
Journal Article
Toth, R., Stone, C., Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2008). Dynamic control and information processing in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction using a coevolutionary algorithm. Journal of Chemical Physics, 129(18), 184708. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2932252

We propose that the behavior of nonlinear media can be controlled dynamically through coevolutionary systems. In this study, a light-sensitive subexcitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is controlled using a heterogeneous cellular automaton. A checke... Read More about Dynamic control and information processing in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction using a coevolutionary algorithm.

Highly sensitive room temperature sensors based on the UV-LED activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (2008)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R. J., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Richardson, M. (2008). Highly sensitive room temperature sensors based on the UV-LED activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 134(2), 945-952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2008.06.055

This study describes novel work on the use of UV-light emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance the room temperature gas sensitivity of thick film zinc oxide sensors. Sensors based on nanoparticulates of zinc oxide activated with a UV-LED of peak wavelength... Read More about Highly sensitive room temperature sensors based on the UV-LED activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Coevolving cellular automata with memory for chemical computing: Boolean logic gates in the BZ reaction (2008)
Book Chapter
Stone, C., Toth, R., de Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., & Adamatzky, A. (2008). Coevolving cellular automata with memory for chemical computing: Boolean logic gates in the BZ reaction. In G. Rudolph, T. Jansen, S. M. Lucas, C. Poloni, & N. Beume (Eds.), Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN X: 10th International Conference Dortmund, Germany, September 13-17, 2008 (579-588). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer

A sensor system for monitoring the simple gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and ethanol in exhaled breath (2008)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B. (2008). A sensor system for monitoring the simple gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and ethanol in exhaled breath. Journal of Breath Research, 2(3), 037011. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/2/3/037011

A sensor array system was constructed incorporating electrochemical sensors for hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and ethanol, a ceramic sensor for total volatiles and a dye-based optical ammonia sensor. The system was calibrated using stan... Read More about A sensor system for monitoring the simple gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and ethanol in exhaled breath.

The characteristics of novel low-cost sensors for volatile biomarker detection (2008)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R. J., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Richards, M. (2008). The characteristics of novel low-cost sensors for volatile biomarker detection. Journal of Breath Research, 2(3), 037017. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/2/3/037017

For breath analyses, volatile detectors capable of sensing extremely low concentrations in the sub-ppm range are required. Novel room temperature sensors were fabricated based on ultraviolet light activation of nanoparticulate metal oxide surfaces us... Read More about The characteristics of novel low-cost sensors for volatile biomarker detection.

A comparative study of the analysis of human urine headspace using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2008)
Journal Article
Smith, S., Burden, H., Persad, R., Whittington, K., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Probert, C. S. (2008). A comparative study of the analysis of human urine headspace using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Breath Research, 2(3), 037022. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/2/3/037022

First-void urine samples were obtained from 24 elderly, asymptomatic men (median age 62.9 years). The headspace above pH adjusted urine samples were extracted using a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane solid phase micro-extraction fibre and the volatile o... Read More about A comparative study of the analysis of human urine headspace using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

An analysis of volatiles in the headspace of the faeces of neonates (2008)
Journal Article
Ewen, R., de Lacy Costello, B., Ewer, A. K., Garner, C. E., Probert, C. S., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Smith, S. (2008). An analysis of volatiles in the headspace of the faeces of neonates. Journal of Breath Research, 2(3), 037023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/2/3/037023

A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of the headspace from the faeces of neonates was undertaken to record the volatiles associated with preterm babies on a neonatal unit. The compounds ethanol, acetone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methylb... Read More about An analysis of volatiles in the headspace of the faeces of neonates.

A sensor system for monitoring the simple gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and ethanol in exhaled breath (2008)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R. J., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2008). A sensor system for monitoring the simple gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and ethanol in exhaled breath. Journal of Breath Research, 2(3), https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/2/3/037011

A sensor array system was constructed incorporating electrochemical sensors for hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and ethanol, a ceramic sensor for total volatiles and a dye-based optical ammonia sensor. The system was calibrated using stan... Read More about A sensor system for monitoring the simple gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and ethanol in exhaled breath.

On logical gates in precipitating medium: Cellular automaton model (2008)
Journal Article
Martínez, G. J., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2008). On logical gates in precipitating medium: Cellular automaton model. Physics Letters A, 372(31), 5115-5119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2008.05.087

We study a two-dimensional semi-totalistic binary cell-state cellular automaton, which imitates a reversible precipitation in an abstract chemical medium. The systems exhibits a non-trivial growth and nucleation. We demonstrate how basic computationa... Read More about On logical gates in precipitating medium: Cellular automaton model.

Computation by competing patterns: life rule B2/S2345678 (2008)
Presentation / Conference
Martinez, G. J., Adamatzky, A., McIntosh, H. V., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2008, June). Computation by competing patterns: life rule B2/S2345678. Paper presented at Automata 2008, Bristol, UK

Computation by competing patterns: life rule B2/S2345678 (2008)
Book Chapter
Martinez, G. J., Adamatzky, A., McIntosh, H. V., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2008). Computation by competing patterns: life rule B2/S2345678. In A. Adamatzky, R. Alonso-Sanz, A. Lawniczak, G. J. Martinez, K. Morita, & T. Worsch (Eds.), Automata 2008: Theory and Applications of Cellular Automata (356-367). Frome: Luniver Press

Patterns, originating from different sources of perturbations, propagating in a precipitating chemical medium do usually compete for the space. They sub-divide the medium onto the regions unique for an initial configuration of disturbances. This sub-... Read More about Computation by competing patterns: life rule B2/S2345678.

Towards unconventional computing through simulated evolution: Control of nonlinear media by a learning classifier system (2008)
Journal Article
Bull, L., Budd, A., Stone, C., Uroukov, I., Costello, B. D. L., & Adamatzky, A. (2008). Towards unconventional computing through simulated evolution: Control of nonlinear media by a learning classifier system. Artificial Life, 14(2), 203-222. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.2008.14.2.203

We propose that the behavior of nonlinear media can be controlled automatically through evolutionary learning. By extension, forms of unconventional computing (viz., massively parallel nonlinear computers) can be realized by such an approach. In this... Read More about Towards unconventional computing through simulated evolution: Control of nonlinear media by a learning classifier system.

Initial results from the use of evolutionary learning to control chemical computers (2008)
Journal Article
Budd, A., Stone, C., Masere, J., Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2008). Initial results from the use of evolutionary learning to control chemical computers. International Journal of Unconventional Computing, 4(1), 13-22

The behaviour of pulses of Belousov-Zhabotinski (BZ) reaction diffusion waves can be controlled automatically through machine learning. By extension, a form of chemical network computing, i.e., a massively parallel non-linear Computer, can be realise... Read More about Initial results from the use of evolutionary learning to control chemical computers.

Universal computation with limited resources: Belousov-Zhabotinsky and physarum computers (2008)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., De Lacy Costello, B., & Shirakawa, T. (2008). Universal computation with limited resources: Belousov-Zhabotinsky and physarum computers. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 18(08), 2373-2389. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218127408021750

Using the examples of an excitable chemical system (the Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium) and plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum we show that universal computation in a geometrically unconstrained medium is only possible when resources (excitability or c... Read More about Universal computation with limited resources: Belousov-Zhabotinsky and physarum computers.

Non-linear media based computers: chemical and neuronal networks through machine learning (2008)
Report
Bull, L., Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., Husbands, P., O’Shea, M., Purcell, W., & Taylor, A. (2008). Non-linear media based computers: chemical and neuronal networks through machine learning

There is growing interest in research into the development of hybrid wetware-silicon devices focused on exploiting their potential for 'non-linear computing'. The aim is to harness the as yet only partially understood intricate dynamics of non-linear... Read More about Non-linear media based computers: chemical and neuronal networks through machine learning.

Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease (2007)
Journal Article
Garner, C. E., Smith, S., De Lacy Costello, B., White, P., Spencer, R., Probert, C. S., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2007). Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB Journal, 21(8), 1675-1688. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.06-6927com

Little is known about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in feces and their potential health consequences. Patients and healthcare professionals have observed that feces often smell abnormal during gastrointestinal disease. The aim of this work wa... Read More about Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease.

Unconventional computing 2007 (2007)
Book
Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., Bull, L., Stepney, S., & Teuscher, C. (2007). Unconventional computing 2007. Frome: Luniver Press

Towards machine learning control of chemical computers (2006)
Book Chapter
Budd, A., Stone, C., Masere, J., Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Bull, L. (2006). Towards machine learning control of chemical computers. In A. Adamatzky, & C. Teuscher (Eds.), From Utopian to Genuine Unconventional Computers (17-36). Frome, UK: Luniver Press

Towards predicting spatial complexity: a learning classifier system approach to the identification of cellular automata (2005)
Presentation / Conference
Bull, L., Lawson, I., Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2005, September). Towards predicting spatial complexity: a learning classifier system approach to the identification of cellular automata. Paper presented at IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2005, Edinburgh, UK

This paper presents a novel approach to the programming of automata-based simulation and computation using a machine learning technique. The identification of lattice-based automata for real-world applications is cast as a data mining problem. Our ap... Read More about Towards predicting spatial complexity: a learning classifier system approach to the identification of cellular automata.

Experimental implementation of collision-based gates in Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium (2005)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2005). Experimental implementation of collision-based gates in Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 25(3), 535-544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2004.11.056

We experimentally demonstrate that excitation wave-fragments in a Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) medium with immobilised catalyst can be used to build elementary logical gates and circuits. Following our previous theoretical constructions [Adamatzky A. Co... Read More about Experimental implementation of collision-based gates in Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium.

Rapid diagnosis of gastro-intestinal infections using faecal odour (2005)
Book Chapter
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Garner, K., Probert, C., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Smith, S. (2005). Rapid diagnosis of gastro-intestinal infections using faecal odour. In A. Amann, & D. Smith (Eds.), Breath Analysis For Clinical Diagnosis And Therapeutic Monitoring (429-436). World Scientific Publishing Company

This book describes how the analysis of the trace gases in exhaled breath can be used for non-invasive clinical diagnosis of disease and for monitoring the effectiveness of therapy. This approach offers an important addition to the diagnostic techniq... Read More about Rapid diagnosis of gastro-intestinal infections using faecal odour.

Reaction-diffusion computers (2005)
Book
Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Asai, T. (2005). Reaction-diffusion computers. Elsevier

The interdisciplinary research monograph, which has been peer-reviewed by several international experts assigned by Elsevier, introduces ground breaking original results in formal paradigms, architectures and laboratory implementations of computers b... Read More about Reaction-diffusion computers.

Experimental implementation of mobile robot taxis with onboard Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical medium (2004)
Journal Article
Ratcliffe, N., Adamatzky, A., Costello, B. D. L., & Melhuish, C. (2004). Experimental implementation of mobile robot taxis with onboard Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical medium. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 24(4), 541-548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2004.02.002

We discuss the first-ever experimental realization of the onboard excitable chemical controller for stimulus-guided navigation of mobile robots. We demonstrate that the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction in the form of an onboard thin layer chemical... Read More about Experimental implementation of mobile robot taxis with onboard Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical medium.

Reaction-diffusion navigation robot control: From chemical to VLSI analogic processors (2004)
Journal Article
Rodríguez-Vázquez, A., De Lacy Costello, B., Carmona-Galán, R., Arena, P., Adamatzky, A., Basile, A., …Frasca, M. (2004). Reaction-diffusion navigation robot control: From chemical to VLSI analogic processors. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 51(5), 926-938. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSI.2004.827654

We introduce a new methodology and experimental implementations for real-time wave-based robot navigation in a complex, dynamically changing environment. The main idea behind the approach is to consider the robot arena as an excitable medium, in whic... Read More about Reaction-diffusion navigation robot control: From chemical to VLSI analogic processors.

Voronoi diagrams generated by regressing edges of precipitation fronts (2004)
Journal Article
Hantz, P., de Lacy Costello, B., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2004). Voronoi diagrams generated by regressing edges of precipitation fronts. Journal of Chemical Physics, 120(5), 2413-2416. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1635358

The Voronoi diagram generated by regression edges of precipitation fronts was analyzed. In the reaction-diffusion system, one of the reagents penetrates into a gel by diffusion and forms a precipitate with the other reagent homogenized in the gel. It... Read More about Voronoi diagrams generated by regressing edges of precipitation fronts.

The formation of voronoi diagrams in chemical and physical systems: Experimental findings and theoretical models (2004)
Journal Article
Purwins, H. G., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M., Adamatzky, A., Zanin, A. L., & Liehr, A. W. (2004). The formation of voronoi diagrams in chemical and physical systems: Experimental findings and theoretical models. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 14(7), 2187-2210. https://doi.org/10.1142/S021812740401059X

The work discusses the formation of Voronoi diagrams in spatially extended nonlinear systems taking experimental and theoretical results into account. Concerning experimental systems a number of chemical systems used previously as prototype chemical... Read More about The formation of voronoi diagrams in chemical and physical systems: Experimental findings and theoretical models.

The synthesis of novel 3-substituted pyrrole monomers possessing chiral side groups: A study of their chemical polymerisation and the assessment of their chiral discrimination properties (2003)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Sivanand, P. S. (2003). The synthesis of novel 3-substituted pyrrole monomers possessing chiral side groups: A study of their chemical polymerisation and the assessment of their chiral discrimination properties. Synthetic Metals, 139(1), 43-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-6779%2802%2901247-X

Novel 3-substituted pyrrole monomers possessing chiral side groups were synthesised. These compounds were successfully polymerised with ferric salts and the polymer materials fabricated into sensors. The sensors were found to elicit differential chan... Read More about The synthesis of novel 3-substituted pyrrole monomers possessing chiral side groups: A study of their chemical polymerisation and the assessment of their chiral discrimination properties.

Experimental reaction-diffusion chemical processors for robot path planning (2003)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Melhuish, C. (2003). Experimental reaction-diffusion chemical processors for robot path planning. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 37(3), 233-249. https://doi.org/10.1023/A%3A1025414424756

In this paper we discuss the experimental implementation of a chemical reaction-diffusion processor for robot motion planning in terms of finding the shortest collision-free path for a robot moving in an arena with obstacles. These reaction-diffusion... Read More about Experimental reaction-diffusion chemical processors for robot path planning.

Thick film organic vapour sensors based on binary mixtures of metal oxides (2003)
Journal Article
Ewen, R. J., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Sivanand, P. S. (2003). Thick film organic vapour sensors based on binary mixtures of metal oxides. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 92(1-2), 159-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4005%2803%2900258-2

Previously, composite sensors incorporating differing proportions of tin dioxide and zinc oxide were reported which exhibited high sensitivity to a range of organic vapours under dry conditions (0% relative humidity, RH). Most importantly, the compos... Read More about Thick film organic vapour sensors based on binary mixtures of metal oxides.

A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain (2003)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Gunson, H., Ratcliffe, N. M., Sivanand, P., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2003). A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain. Measurement Science and Technology, 14(4), 397-409. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/14/4/301

Spencer-Phillips was Co-Investigator, the lead biologist in this HGCA-funded multi-disciplinary work, and co-wrote the paper. The grant was based on his expertise in the microbiology of post-harvest spoilage.

A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain (2003)
Journal Article
Gunson, H., de Lacy Costello, B., Ratcliffe, N. M., Ewen, R. J., Sivanand, P. S., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2003). A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain. Measurement Science and Technology, 14(4), 397-409. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/14/4/301

Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by... Read More about A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain.

Sensors for early warning of post-harvest spoilage in potato tubers (2002)
Presentation / Conference
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Gunson, H., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2002, November). Sensors for early warning of post-harvest spoilage in potato tubers. Presented at BCPC Conference 2002 - Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK

Post-harvest spoilage of potato tubers results in approximately 9 million annual loss in the UK alone. In this paper, we report work completed with funding from the British Potato Council to develop an electronic sensor system (e-nose) to enable the... Read More about Sensors for early warning of post-harvest spoilage in potato tubers.

Highly sensitive mixed oxide sensors for the detection of ethanol (2002)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Guernion, N., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2002). Highly sensitive mixed oxide sensors for the detection of ethanol. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 87(1), 207-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4005%2802%2900220-4

Sensors consisting of mixtures of tin dioxide and zinc oxide powders in a range of proportions were constructed. Each mixture was applied to an electrode-bearing alumina substrate either as a paste, or by screen printing. The responses of these senso... Read More about Highly sensitive mixed oxide sensors for the detection of ethanol.

Experimental logical gates in a reaction-diffusion medium: The XOR gate and beyond (2002)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2002). Experimental logical gates in a reaction-diffusion medium: The XOR gate and beyond. Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics, 66(4), 6. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.66.046112

We exploit the particulars of diffusive wave front interactions in certain types of two-reactant reaction-diffusion medium to construct a laboratory prototype of an XOR gate. In the design, the values of the logic variables are represented by the pre... Read More about Experimental logical gates in a reaction-diffusion medium: The XOR gate and beyond.

Collision-free path planning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium assisted by a cellular automaton (2002)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2002). Collision-free path planning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium assisted by a cellular automaton. Naturwissenschaften, 89(10), 474-478. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0363-6

We offer a new approach to computing a shortest collision-free path in a space containing obstacles, using an experimental chemical processor, based on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. The chemical processor was then coupled via optical links... Read More about Collision-free path planning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium assisted by a cellular automaton.

Experimental reaction-diffusion pre-processor for shape recognition (2002)
Journal Article
Adamatzky, A., de Lacy Costello, B., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (2002). Experimental reaction-diffusion pre-processor for shape recognition. Physics Letters A, 297(5-6), 344-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0375-9601%2802%2900289-X

We have produced an experimental implementation of a massively-parallel reaction-diffusion processor which performs one of the most essential parts of shape recognition - construction of a skeleton. A skeleton is a unique, stable and invariant repres... Read More about Experimental reaction-diffusion pre-processor for shape recognition.

The synthesis of 3-octadecyl- and 3-docosylpyrrole, their polymerisation and incorporation into novel composite gas sensitive resistors (2002)
Journal Article
Ratcliffe, N. M., Guernion, N., & de Lacy Costello, B. (2002). The synthesis of 3-octadecyl- and 3-docosylpyrrole, their polymerisation and incorporation into novel composite gas sensitive resistors. Synthetic Metals, 128(2), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-6779%2801%2900551-3

3-Octadecylpyrrole and the novel 3-docosylpyrrole were synthesised in high yields. These monomers were polymerised with various oxidising agents to produce a range of 3-octadecylpolypyrroles and 3-docosylpolypyrroles with different counter-ions. Thes... Read More about The synthesis of 3-octadecyl- and 3-docosylpyrrole, their polymerisation and incorporation into novel composite gas sensitive resistors.

The use of a minimal number of vapour sensors for the assessment of food quality (2001)
Book Chapter
de Lacy Costello, B., Ewen, R., Gunson, H., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2001). The use of a minimal number of vapour sensors for the assessment of food quality. In S. Clark, K. Thompson, C. Keevil, & M. Smith (Eds.), Rapid Detection Assays (148-152). Royal Society of Chemistry

The detection of harmful chemicals and microbial pathogens in food and water destined for consumers is of paramount importance the world over and it is vital that new techniques and discoveries are widely disseminated. Bringing together international... Read More about The use of a minimal number of vapour sensors for the assessment of food quality.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum (2001)
Journal Article
Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Jones, P. R., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., …Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2001). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum. Plant Pathology, 50(4), 489-496. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2001.00594.x

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans (late blight), Fusarium coeruleum (dry rot) or sterilized distilled water (as a control) were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (G... Read More about Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of volatile organic compounds from potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans or Fusarium coeruleum.

Development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers (2000)
Journal Article
Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Gunson, H. E., Ewen, R. J., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., …Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (2000). Development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers. Measurement Science and Technology, 11(12), 1685-1691. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/11/12/305

A number of sensor types were fabricated and tested for their electrical resistance changes to compounds known to be evolved by potato tubers with soft rot caused by the bacterium Erwinia carotovora. On the basis of these tests, three sensors were se... Read More about Development of a sensor system for the early detection of soft rot in stored potato tubers.

A pilot-plant study of an automated quality control electronic nose for the monitoring of dry cured hams (1999)
Book Chapter
Abbass, A., de Lacy Costello, B., Cooper, L., Evans, P., Ewen, R., Hart, J. P., & Ratcliffe, N. M. (1999). A pilot-plant study of an automated quality control electronic nose for the monitoring of dry cured hams. In W. Hurst (Ed.), Electronic Noses & Sensor Array Based Systems - Design & Applications, Fifth International Symposium Proceedings (211-224). Pennsylvania, USA: CRC Press

Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV: Maris piper) infected by Erwinia carotovora, Bacillus polymyxa and Arthrobacter sp. (1999)
Journal Article
Spencer-Phillips, P. T., Ratcliffe, N. M., Ewen, R. J., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., …Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (1999). Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV: Maris piper) infected by Erwinia carotovora, Bacillus polymyxa and Arthrobacter sp. Plant Pathology, 48(3), 345-351. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.1999.00357.x

Bacteria were isolated from internal tissues of surface sterilized healthy tubers of Solanum tuberosum cv. Maris Piper (8 different isolates) and from tubers inoculated with Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora showing soft-rot symptoms (3 different is... Read More about Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV: Maris piper) infected by Erwinia carotovora, Bacillus polymyxa and Arthrobacter sp..

Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV : Maris Piper) infected by erwinia carotovora, bacillus polymyxa and arthrobacter sp (1999)
Journal Article
de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., Ewen, R., Gunson, H., Ratcliffe, N. M., & Spencer-Phillips, P. T. (1999). Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV : Maris Piper) infected by erwinia carotovora, bacillus polymyxa and arthrobacter sp. Plant Pathology, 48(3), 345-351

Bacteria were isolated from internal tissues of surface sterilized healthy tubers of Solanum tuberosum cv. Maris Piper (8 different isolates) and from tubers inoculated with Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora showing soft-rot symptoms (3 different is... Read More about Identification of volatiles generated by potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum CV : Maris Piper) infected by erwinia carotovora, bacillus polymyxa and arthrobacter sp.

Novel composite organic-inorganic semiconductor sensors for the quantitative detection of target organic vapours (1996)
Journal Article
Honeybourne, C. L., Ewen, R. J., De Lacy Costello, B. P., de Lacy Costello, B., Evans, P., Ewen, R., …Ratcliffe, N. M. (1996). Novel composite organic-inorganic semiconductor sensors for the quantitative detection of target organic vapours. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 6(3), 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1039/JM9960600289

Composites of tin dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) and derivatives of the conducting polymer polypyrrole (a p-type semiconductor) gave reversible changes in electrical resistance at room temperature when exposed to a range of organic vapours. The op... Read More about Novel composite organic-inorganic semiconductor sensors for the quantitative detection of target organic vapours.

Analysis of the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodium and sporangia of the slime mould (Physarum polycephalum) by SPME-GCMS
Journal Article

Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to extract and analyse the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodial and sporulating stages of the slime mould Physarum Polycephalum. In tota... Read More about Analysis of the volatiles in the headspace above the plasmodium and sporangia of the slime mould (Physarum polycephalum) by SPME-GCMS.