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Combo Travel - Active and motorised modes working better together

Lyons, Glenn; Cain, Scott; Jakeman, Karla

Combo Travel - Active and motorised modes working better together Thumbnail


Scott Cain

Karla Jakeman


This paper considers the concept of Combo Travel: human-powered mobility in combination with a motorised mode as an enabler of healthier lifestyles and lower carbon journeys.

Most journeys by motorised modes ( bus, train, tube, car, van etc.) also involve some element of human-powered mobility at either end – from a few steps to the front door from a parked car, to a cycle ride to the train station. Combo Travel goes further by explicitly seeking to optimise for and increase the active aspect of everyday journeys and commutes.

Combo Travel is distinct from the popularised concept of Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). Combo Travel is specifically focused on encouraging and enabling active travel; whereas MaaS is largely focused upon selling access to (motorised) mobility. Combo Travel (independently or as part of an evolution of MaaS) could be a significant ingredient to future transport because of the multiple policy priorities that it could help to address. In this sense it might be considered a ‘super-policy’: supporting public health, supporting motorised transport services, supporting transport decarbonisation and promoting economic prosperity.

As an under-explored and under-developed phenomenon, Combo Travel would seem deserving of further attention. This paper provides an examination of literature to understand the state of the art in conceptual and empirical terms as it relates to active travel undertaken in combination with motorised travel. It then adds further insights from stakeholder engagement to explore views concerning Combo Travel and highlight opportunities for future innovation.

It is intended that this paper provides a resource that can help direct greater attention to Combo Travel and inform and inspire an appetite to better understand and progress it as a contributor to future transport. In so doing, the importance of traveller perspective comes to the fore. Any approaches to research and innovation should recognise and address the diverse makeup of the travelling public, seeking to understand their lived experiences that determine the context into which Combo Travel is, or could be, introduced.


Lyons, G., Cain, S., & Jakeman, K. (2021). Combo Travel - Active and motorised modes working better together. Innovate UK

Report Type Discussion Paper
Acceptance Date May 7, 2021
Online Publication Date May 28, 2021
Publication Date May 28, 2021
Deposit Date May 28, 2021
Publicly Available Date May 28, 2021
Keywords Combo Travel; Active travel; Public health; Multi-modal; Innovation
Public URL
Additional Information This paper is the result of a piece of work by Glenn Lyons and Scott Cain for, and with, Karla Jakeman of Innovate UK. The paper has been produced in its final form by designers on behalf of Innovate UK. It has been agreed with Karla Jakeman that the paper should be hosted on the UWE research repository.


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