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A simple and rapid method for the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke by liquid chromatography and its application for the assessment of contaminated outdoor communal areas

Santos e Silva, Samira Inácia; Bowdler, Paul; Giltrow, Danielle; Riddell, Stephanie; Honeychurch, Kevin C.

Authors

Samira Inácia Santos e Silva

Paul Bowdler paul2.bowdler@uwe.ac.uk

Danielle Giltrow

Stephanie Riddell stephanie2.riddell@live.uwe.ac.uk



Abstract

Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This is the first report on the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke (THS) in outdoor communal areas. The term THS can be defined as the contamination of surfaces by second-hand smoke. This can remain for extended periods of time and undergo further chemical reactions to produce further pollutants which can be re-suspended in dust or re-emitted into the gas phase. As THS is a rather complex mixture, studies have focused on using nicotine as a marker of THS, as it is the most abundant organic compound emitted during smoking. In this present study, the extraction of dust-wipe samples and the subsequent chromatographic conditions required for the separation of nicotine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography were optimized. The optimum chromatographic conditions were identified as a 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm Zorbax Carbohydrate Analysis column with a mobile phase consisting of 90 % acetonitrile, 10 % water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 259 nm. Further investigations were made on samples collected from surfaces of public entrance ways. Under these conditions, a linear range for nicotine of 0.05 to 24 µg/mL (1.0–480 ng on column) was obtained, with a detection limit of 1.0 ng on column based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three. Acetone, naphthalene, phenol, musk ketone, and palmitic acid were found not to interfere. Communal entrance ways were found to be contaminated with THS nicotine levels of between 5.09 µg/m2 and 309 µg/m2 comparable to that found in other previous studies of indoor environments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Citation

Santos e Silva, S. I., Bowdler, P., Giltrow, D., Riddell, S., & Honeychurch, K. C. (2016). A simple and rapid method for the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke by liquid chromatography and its application for the assessment of contaminated outdoor communal areas. Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(7), 676-681. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1822

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jul 1, 2016
Journal Drug Testing and Analysis
Print ISSN 1942-7603
Electronic ISSN 1942-7611
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 8
Issue 7
Pages 676-681
DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1822
Keywords third-hand smoke, HILIC, dust wipe, nicotine, communal areas, outdoor
Public URL https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/output/911039
Publisher URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1822
Additional Information Additional Information : This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Silva, S. InĂ¡cia S. e., Bowdler, P., Giltrow, D., Riddell, S. and Honeychurch, K. C. (2015) A simple and rapid method for the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke by liquid chromatography and its application for the assessment of contaminated outdoor communal areas. Drug Testing and Analysis. ISSN 1942-7603 , which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1822. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

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