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How is men's conformity to masculine norms related to their body image? Masculinity and muscularity across Western Countries


Debra L. Franko

Phillippa C. Diedrichs

Lina A. Ricciardelli


Kristina Holmqvist Gattario

Ann Frisen

Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz

Lina A Ricciardelli

Zali Yager

Debra L Franko

Linda Smolak


© 2014 American Psychological Association. Previous research has suggested that men's conformity to masculine norms (CMN) is an important correlate of men's drive for muscularity. The present study aimed to further delineate the relationship between masculinity and men's body image by examining various dimensions of CMN in relation to various dimensions of men's body image (muscularity, leanness, and fitness) in a cross-national sample. Participants comprised young men from the United States (n = 192), the United Kingdom (n = 141), Australia (n = 160), and Sweden (n = 142). Multigroup path analyses showed that CMN was related to drive for muscularity, leanness, and fitness in all 4 countries, but there were differences across countries in which dimensions of CMN predicted men's body image. Whereas conformity to the masculine norm of winning was a salient predictor across the 4 countries, conformity to the norm of risk-taking was linked to Australian men's body image, and conformity to the norm of violence to British men's body image. The findings support previous research suggesting that men's endorsement of the male gender role plays a significant role in their desire for an ideal body, but the results uniquely document that this relationship may differ across countries.


Franko, D. L., Diedrichs, P. C., Ricciardelli, L. A., Frisén, A., Gattario, K. H., Frisen, A., …Smolak, L. (2015). How is men's conformity to masculine norms related to their body image? Masculinity and muscularity across Western Countries. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 16(3), 337-347.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jan 1, 2015
Journal Psychology of Men and Masculinity
Print ISSN 1524-9220
Publisher American Psychological Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Issue 3
Pages 337-347
Keywords masculinity, body image, muscularity, leanness, fitness, cross-national differences
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.


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