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The psychosocial impact of living with an ocular prosthesis

Lindenmeyer, Antje; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Harcourt, Diana; Moss, Tim; Clarke, Sally Ann; Newell, Rob; Newman, Stanton; Clarke, Alex; Charlton, Rodger; McBain, Hayley; Byron-Daniel, James; Williams, Emma; White, Paul; Walsh, Eleanor; Thompson, Andrew; Saul, Krysia; McBain, Hayley B.; Ezra, Daniel G.; Rose, Geoffrey E.; Newman, Stanton P.


Antje Lindenmeyer

Diana Harcourt
Professor in Appearance Research

Tim Moss
Director of PGR Studies and Associate Professor

Sally Ann Clarke

Rob Newell

Stanton Newman

Alex Clarke

Rodger Charlton

Hayley McBain

Emma Williams

Paul White
Professor in Applied Statistics

Eleanor Walsh

Andrew Thompson

Krysia Saul

Hayley B. McBain

Daniel G. Ezra

Geoffrey E. Rose

Stanton P. Newman


Objective: Many patients are satisfied with their ocular prosthesis, but some describe problems with social interactions, body image and self-esteem. Although both clinical practice and research suggest that the severity of a disfiguring condition does not predict distress, there has been little research with patients living with an ocular prosthesis. The objective was to explore the psychological impact of living with an artificial eye or cosmetic shell and determine the relationship between psychological well-being and clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study between March and September 2008 at the ocular prosthesis clinic of Moorfields Eye Hospital, UK. The primary outcome measures were mood as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and appearance-related social anxiety and social avoidance, as measured by the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS24). Results: Mean scores on the HADS and DAS24 were within normal range, but a considerable proportion of participants were experiencing significant levels of distress. Psychosocial adjustment was unrelated to most clinical and demographic variables, but was associated with a series of cognitive processes. Conclusions: Psychological variables, rather than clinical or demographic factors, are associated with how a patient adjusts to wearing an ocular prosthesis. Such factors might be amenable to change through psychosocial intervention. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.


Lindenmeyer, A., Jenkinson, E., Harcourt, D., Moss, T., Clarke, S. A., Newell, R., …Newman, S. P. (2014). The psychosocial impact of living with an ocular prosthesis. Orbit, 33(1), 39-44.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Feb 1, 2014
Deposit Date Aug 20, 2015
Journal Orbit
Print ISSN 0167-6830
Electronic ISSN 1744-5108
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 33
Issue 1
Pages 39-44
Keywords anxiety, depression, ophthalmology, prosthesis, visible difference
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Corporate Creators : Members of the Appearance Research Collaboration