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Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: Direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression

Moss, Timothy P.; Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul; Rumsey, Nichola; Byron-Daniel, James; Charlton, Rodger; Clarke, Alex; Clarke, Sally Ann; Harcourt, Diana; McBain, Hayley; Jenkinson, Elizabeth; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Newell, Rob; Newman, Stanton; Saul, Krysia; Thompson, Andrew; Walsh, Eleanor

Authors

Victoria Lawson

Paul White Paul.White@uwe.ac.uk
Associate Professor in Applied Statistics

Rodger Charlton

Alex Clarke

Sally Ann Clarke

Diana Harcourt Diana2.Harcourt@uwe.ac.uk
Professor in Appearance & Health Psychology Research

Hayley McBain

Antje Lindenmeyer

Rob Newell

Stanton Newman

Krysia Saul

Andrew Thompson

Eleanor Walsh



Abstract

Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL) on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL) and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651) or the community (n = 614) provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence. © 2014 Moss et al.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Feb 6, 2014
Journal PLoS ONE
Electronic ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 2
Pages e88435
APA6 Citation Walsh, E., Thompson, A., Saul, K., Newman, S., Newell, R., Lindenmeyer, A., …UWE Collaborators, . (2014). Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: Direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e88435. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088435
DOI https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088435
Keywords anxiety, depression, eigenvalues, ethnic epidemiology, factor analysis, Mosses, psychometrics, self-consciousness, visible difference
Publisher URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088435
Additional Information Additional Information : Diana Harcourt and Nichola Rumsey are members of the Appearance Research Collaboration and are collaborators on this article.
Corporate Creators : Appearance Research Collaboration

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