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On coevolution: Asymmetry in the NKCS model

Bull, Larry

On coevolution: Asymmetry in the NKCS model Thumbnail


Lawrence Bull
School Director (Research & Enterprise) and Professor


The NKCS model was introduced to explore coevolutionary systems, that is, systems in which multiple species are closely interconnected. The fitness landscapes of the species are coupled to a controllable amount, where the underlying properties of the individual landscapes are also controllable. Previous work has assumed symmetry with respect to the controlling parameters. This paper explores the effects of reducing that symmetry on the behaviour of the coevolutionary system, including varying genome complexity, the degree of landscape coupling, and the use of local learning. Significant changes in behaviour from the traditional model are seen across the parameter space. These findings are suggested as particularly pertinent to symbiotic relationships.


Bull, L. (2021). On coevolution: Asymmetry in the NKCS model. BioSystems, 207, Article 104469.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 26, 2021
Online Publication Date Jun 29, 2021
Publication Date Sep 1, 2021
Deposit Date Jun 27, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jun 30, 2022
Journal BioSystems
Print ISSN 0303-2647
Electronic ISSN 1872-8324
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 207
Article Number 104469
Keywords Baldwin effect; evolution; fitness landscape; mutation; symbiosis
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