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The sequence of two bacteriophages with hypermodified bases reveals novel phage-host interactions

Kropinski, Andrew; Turner, Dann; Nash, John; Ackermann, Hans Wolfgang; Lingohr, Erika; Warren, Richard; Ehrlich, Kenneth; Ehrlich, Melanie


Andrew Kropinski

Dann Turner
Senior Lecturer in Molecular Biology

John Nash

Hans Wolfgang Ackermann

Erika Lingohr

Richard Warren

Kenneth Ehrlich

Melanie Ehrlich


© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Bacteriophages SP-15 and ΦW-14 are members of the Myoviridae infecting Bacillus subtilis and Delftia (formerly Pseudomonas) acidovorans, respectively. What links them is that in both cases, approximately 50% of the thymine residues are replaced by hypermodified bases. The consequence of this is that the physico-chemical properties of the DNA are radically altered (melting temperature (Tm), buoyant density and susceptibility to restriction endonucleases). Using 454 pyrosequencing technology, we sequenced the genomes of both viruses. Phage ΦW-14 possesses a 157-kb genome (56.3% GC) specifying 236 proteins, while SP-15 is larger at 222 kb (38.6 mol % G + C) and encodes 318 proteins. In both cases, the phages can be considered genomic singletons since they do not possess BLASTn homologs. While no obvious genes were identified as being responsible for the modified base in ΦW-14, SP-15 contains a cluster of genes obviously involved in carbohydrate metabolism.


Kropinski, A., Turner, D., Nash, J., Ackermann, H. W., Lingohr, E., Warren, R., …Ehrlich, M. (2018). The sequence of two bacteriophages with hypermodified bases reveals novel phage-host interactions. Viruses, 10(5), 217.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 20, 2018
Publication Date May 1, 2018
Publicly Available Date Nov 30, -0001
Journal Viruses
Electronic ISSN 1999-4915
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 5
Pages 217
Keywords bacteriophage, hypermodified bases, alpha-putrescinylthymine, ΦW-14, SP-15, Bacillus, Delftia, DNA sequencing, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, 5-hydroxypentyluracil
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