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Where to park? A behavioural comparison of bus Park and Ride and city centre car park usage in Bath, UK

Clayton, William; Ben-Elia, Eran; Parkhurst, Graham; Ricci, Miriam


Eran Ben-Elia


Integrating car parking facilities with public transport in Park and Ride (P&R) facilities has the potential to shorten car trips, contributing to more sustainable mobility. There is an ongoing debate about the actual effects of P&R on the transport system at the subregional level. A key issue is the relative attractiveness of city centre car parks (CCCP), P&R and public transport. The paper presents the findings of a comparative empirical case-study based on a field survey of CCCP and P&R users conducted in the city of Bath, UK. Spatial and statistical analyses are applied. Radial distance to parking, availability of P&R sites in the direction of travel, gender, age, income and party-size are found to be important factors in a binary logistic regression model, explaining the revealed-preference of parking type. Stated analysis of foregone parking alternatives suggests more use of public transport and walking/cycling would likely occur without first-best parking alternatives. The policy implications and possible planning alternatives to P&R at the urban fringes for achieving greater sustainability goals are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Clayton, W., Ben-Elia, E., Parkhurst, G., & Ricci, M. (2014). Where to park? A behavioural comparison of bus Park and Ride and city centre car park usage in Bath, UK. Journal of Transport Geography, 36, 124-133.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Apr 13, 2014
Publication Date Jan 1, 2014
Journal Journal of Transport Geography
Print ISSN 0966-6923
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 36
Pages 124-133
Keywords transport policy, park and ride, parking, sustainable mobility, travel behaviour, public transport
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Transport Geography. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version will be published in Journal of Transport Geography.


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