Artificial Life can be modeled using simulated au-topoiesis. Liquid Automata are used to define simulated chemical reaction systems; particle systems with rules governing how particles are transformed on collision with each other. Unlike cellular automata, there is no fixed grid or time-step, only particles moving about and colliding in continuous space/time. These systems may give rise to emergent artificial life, or they may be (artificially) lifeless. Can we distinguish between these systems by analysing their equilibria?
Battle, S. (2023). Artificial life as controlled disequilibrium. In B. Muller (Ed.),