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The visual design of network data to enhance cyber security awareness of the everyday internet user (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Carroll, F., Legg, P., & Bønkel, B. (2020, June). The visual design of network data to enhance cyber security awareness of the everyday internet user. Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (Cyber Science 2020)

Technology and the use of online services are very prevalent across much of our everyday lives. As our digital interactions continue to grow, there is a need to improve public awareness of the risks to our personal online privacy and security. Design... Read More about The visual design of network data to enhance cyber security awareness of the everyday internet user.

"What did you say?": Extracting unintentional secrets from predictive text learning systems (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Wilkinson, G., & Legg, P. (2020, June). "What did you say?": Extracting unintentional secrets from predictive text learning systems. Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Science 2020)

As a primary form of communication, text is used widely in applications including e-mail conversations, mobile text messaging, chatrooms, and forum discussions. Modern systems include facilities such as predictive text, recently implemented using dee... Read More about "What did you say?": Extracting unintentional secrets from predictive text learning systems.

Shouting through letterboxes: A study on attack susceptibility of voice assistants (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Mccarthy, A., Gaster, B., & Legg, P. (2020, June). Shouting through letterboxes: A study on attack susceptibility of voice assistants. Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and the Protection of Digital Services (Cyber Science 2020)

Voice assistants such as Amazon Echo and Google Home have become increasingly popular for many home users, for home automation, entertainment, and convenience. These devices process speech commands from a user to execute some action, such as playing... Read More about Shouting through letterboxes: A study on attack susceptibility of voice assistants.

Tools and techniques for improving cyber situational awareness of targeted phishing attacks (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Legg, P., & Blackman, T. (2019). Tools and techniques for improving cyber situational awareness of targeted phishing attacks. https://doi.org/10.1109/CyberSA.2019.8899406

© 2019 IEEE. Phishing attacks continue to be one of the most common attack vectors used online today to deceive users, such that attackers can obtain unauthorised access or steal sensitive information. Phishing campaigns often vary in their level of... Read More about Tools and techniques for improving cyber situational awareness of targeted phishing attacks.

Efficient and interpretable real-time malware detection using random-forest (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Mills, A., Spyridopoulos, T., & Legg, P. (2019). Efficient and interpretable real-time malware detection using random-forest. https://doi.org/10.1109/CyberSA.2019.8899533

© 2019 IEEE. Malicious software, often described as malware, is one of the greatest threats to modern computer systems, and attackers continue to develop more sophisticated methods to access and compromise data and resources. Machine learning methods... Read More about Efficient and interpretable real-time malware detection using random-forest.

What makes for effective visualisation in cyber situational awareness for non-expert users? (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Carroll, F., Chakof, A., & Legg, P. (2019). What makes for effective visualisation in cyber situational awareness for non-expert users?. https://doi.org/10.1109/CyberSA.2019.8899440

© 2019 IEEE. As cyber threats continue to become more prevalent, there is a need to consider how best we can understand the cyber landscape when acting online, especially so for non-expert users. Satellite navigation systems provide the de facto stan... Read More about What makes for effective visualisation in cyber situational awareness for non-expert users?.

Venue2Vec: An efficient embedding model for fine-grained user location prediction in geo-social networks (2019)
Journal Article
Xu, S., Cao, J., Legg, P., Liu, B., & Li, S. (2020). Venue2Vec: An efficient embedding model for fine-grained user location prediction in geo-social networks. IEEE Systems Journal, 14(2), 1740-1751. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2019.2913080

Geo-Social Networks (GSN) significantly improve location-aware capability of services by offering geo-located content based on the huge volumes of data generated in the GSN. The problem of user location prediction based on user-generated data in GSN... Read More about Venue2Vec: An efficient embedding model for fine-grained user location prediction in geo-social networks.

Visual analytics for collaborative human-machine confidence in human-centric active learning tasks (2019)
Journal Article
Legg, P., Smith, J., & Downing, A. (2019). Visual analytics for collaborative human-machine confidence in human-centric active learning tasks. Human-Centric Computing and Information Sciences, 9, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13673-019-0167-8

Active machine learning is a human-centric paradigm that leverages a small labelled dataset to build an initial weak classifier, that can then be improved over time through human-machine collaboration. As new unlabelled samples are observed, the mach... Read More about Visual analytics for collaborative human-machine confidence in human-centric active learning tasks.

Predicting user confidence during visual decision making (2018)
Journal Article
Smith, J., Legg, P., Kinsey, K., & Matovis, M. (2018). Predicting user confidence during visual decision making. ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, 8(2), https://doi.org/10.1145/3185524

© 2018 ACM People are not infallible consistent “oracles”: their confidence in decision-making may vary significantly between tasks and over time. We have previously reported the benefits of using an interface and algorithms that explicitly captured... Read More about Predicting user confidence during visual decision making.

Predicting the occurrence of world news events using recurrent neural networks and auto-regressive moving average models (2017)
Book Chapter
Smith, E. M., Smith, J., Legg, P., & Francis, S. (2017). Predicting the occurrence of world news events using recurrent neural networks and auto-regressive moving average models. In F. Chao, S. Schockaert, & Q. Zhang (Eds.), Advances in Computational Intelligence Systems: UKCI 2017, 191-202. Springer Cham

The ability to predict future states is fundamental for a wide variety of applications, from weather forecasting to stock market analysis. Understanding the related data attributes that can influence changes in time series is a challenging task that... Read More about Predicting the occurrence of world news events using recurrent neural networks and auto-regressive moving average models.

RicherPicture: Semi-automated cyber defence using context-aware data analytics (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Erola, A., Agrafiotis, I., Happa, J., Goldsmith, M., Creese, S., & Legg, P. (2017, June). RicherPicture: Semi-automated cyber defence using context-aware data analytics. Paper presented at International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA 2017), London

In a continually evolving cyber-threat landscape, the detection and prevention of cyber attacks has become a complex task. Technological developments have led organisations to digitise the majority of their operations. This practice, however, has its... Read More about RicherPicture: Semi-automated cyber defence using context-aware data analytics.

Automated Insider Threat Detection System Using User and Role-Based Profile Assessment (2017)
Journal Article
Legg, P. A., Legg, P., Buckley, O., Goldsmith, M., & Creese, S. (2017). Automated Insider Threat Detection System Using User and Role-Based Profile Assessment. IEEE Systems Journal, 11(2), 503-512. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2015.2438442

© 2007-2012 IEEE. Organizations are experiencing an ever-growing concern of how to identify and defend against insider threats. Those who have authorized access to sensitive organizational data are placed in a position of power that could well be abu... Read More about Automated Insider Threat Detection System Using User and Role-Based Profile Assessment.

Glyph visualization: A fail-safe design scheme based on quasi-hamming distances (2017)
Journal Article
Legg, P. A., Legg, P., Maguire, E., Walton, S., & Chen, M. (2017). Glyph visualization: A fail-safe design scheme based on quasi-hamming distances. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 37(2), 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2016.66

© 1981-2012 IEEE. In many spatial and temporal visualization applications, glyphs provide an effective means for encoding multivariate data. However, because glyphs are typically small, they are vulnerable to various perceptual errors. This article i... Read More about Glyph visualization: A fail-safe design scheme based on quasi-hamming distances.

Visual analytics for non-expert users in cyber situation awareness (2016)
Journal Article
Legg, P. (2016). Visual analytics for non-expert users in cyber situation awareness. https://doi.org/10.22619/IJCSA

Situation awareness is often described as the perception and comprehension of the current situation, and the projection of future status. Whilst this may be well understood in an organisational cybersecurity context, there is a strong case to be made... Read More about Visual analytics for non-expert users in cyber situation awareness.

Enhancing cyber situation awareness for non-expert users using visual analytics (2016)
Presentation / Conference
Legg, P. (2016, June). Enhancing cyber situation awareness for non-expert users using visual analytics. Paper presented at International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (CyberSA 2016)

Situation awareness is often described as the perception and comprehension of the current situation, and the projection of future status. Whilst this may be understood in an organisational cybersecurity context, there is a strong case to be made for... Read More about Enhancing cyber situation awareness for non-expert users using visual analytics.

Knowledge-Assisted Ranking: A Visual Analytic Application for Sports Event Data (2016)
Journal Article
Legg, P. A., Laramee, R. S., Griffiths, I. W., Parry, M. L., Chung, D. H., Chung, D., …Chen, M. (2016). Knowledge-Assisted Ranking: A Visual Analytic Application for Sports Event Data. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 36(3), 72-82. https://doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2015.25

© 2016 IEEE. Organizing sports video data for performance analysis can be challenging, especially in cases involving multiple attributes and when the criteria for sorting frequently changes depending on the user's task. The proposed visual analytic s... Read More about Knowledge-Assisted Ranking: A Visual Analytic Application for Sports Event Data.

Visualizing the insider threat: Challenges and tools for identifying malicious user activity (2015)
Presentation / Conference
Legg, P. (2015, October). Visualizing the insider threat: Challenges and tools for identifying malicious user activity. Paper presented at IEEE Symposium on Visualization for Cyber Security

One of the greatest challenges for managing organisational cyber security is the threat that comes from those who operate within the organisation. With entitled access and knowledge of organisational processes, insiders who choose to attack have the... Read More about Visualizing the insider threat: Challenges and tools for identifying malicious user activity.

Quasi-Hamming distances: An overarching concept for measuring glyph similarity (2015)
Presentation / Conference
Legg, P. A., Maguire, E., Walton, S., & Chen, M. (2015, September). Quasi-Hamming distances: An overarching concept for measuring glyph similarity. Paper presented at EGUK Computer Graphics and Visual Computing 2015

In many applications of spatial or temporal visualization, glyphs provide an effective means for encoding mul- tivariate data objects. However, because glyphs are typically small, they are vulnerable to various perceptual errors. In data communicatio... Read More about Quasi-Hamming distances: An overarching concept for measuring glyph similarity.

Caught in the Act of an Insider Attack: Detection and Assessment of Insider Threat (2015)
Presentation / Conference
Legg, P. A., Buckley, O., Goldsmith, M., & Creese, S. (2015, April). Caught in the Act of an Insider Attack: Detection and Assessment of Insider Threat. Paper presented at IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security

The greatest asset that any organisation has are its people, but they may also be the greatest threat. Those who are within the organisation may have authorised access to vast amounts of sensitive company records that are essential for maintaining co... Read More about Caught in the Act of an Insider Attack: Detection and Assessment of Insider Threat.

Feature Neighbourhood Mutual Information for multi-modal image registration: An application to eye fundus imaging (2014)
Journal Article
Legg, P., Rosin, P., Marshall, D., & Morgan, J. E. (2015). Feature Neighbourhood Mutual Information for multi-modal image registration: An application to eye fundus imaging. Pattern Recognition, 48(6), 1937-1946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2014.12.014

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Multi-modal image registration is becoming an increasingly powerful tool for medical diagnosis and treatment. The combination of different image modalities facilitates much greater understanding of the underl... Read More about Feature Neighbourhood Mutual Information for multi-modal image registration: An application to eye fundus imaging.


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