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Weed classification in grasslands using convolutional neural networks (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, L. N., Byrne, A., Hansen, M. F., Zhang, W., & Smith, M. L. (2019). Weed classification in grasslands using convolutional neural networks. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2530092

Automatic identification and selective spraying of weeds (such as dock) in grass can provide very significant long-term ecological and cost benefits. Although machine vision (with interface to suitable automation) provides an effective means of achie... Read More about Weed classification in grasslands using convolutional neural networks.

A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth (2019)
Journal Article
Bernotas, G., Scorza, L. C., Hansen, M. F., Hales, I. J., Halliday, K. J., Smith, L. N., …McCormick, A. J. (2019). A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth. GigaScience, 8(5), https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giz056

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distri... Read More about A photometric stereo-based 3D imaging system using computer vision and deep learning for tracking plant growth.

Broad-leaf weed detection in pasture (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Volonakis, T. N., Smith, M., Smith, L., Wilson, J., …Wright, G. (2018). Broad-leaf weed detection in pasture

Weed control in pasture is a challenging problem that can be expensive and environmentally unfriendly. This paper proposes a novel method for recognition of broad-leaf weeds in pasture such that precision weed control can be achieved with reduced her... Read More about Broad-leaf weed detection in pasture.

2D and 3D face analysis for ticketless rail travel (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Smith, L., Zhang, W., & Smith, M. L. (2018). 2D and 3D face analysis for ticketless rail travel. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Image Processing, Computer Vision, & Pattern Recognition. , (16-22)

Research is reported into the design, implementation and functionalities of a vision system that employs the human face as a biometric for enabling ticketless rail travel. The system has been developed to optimise performance in the relatively unstru... Read More about 2D and 3D face analysis for ticketless rail travel.

Multispectral contactless 3D handprint acquisition for identification (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Hansen, M. F., Smith, L., & Smith, M. (2018, July). Multispectral contactless 3D handprint acquisition for identification. Paper presented at The 20th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2018 World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, & Applied Computing

We present and experimentally demonstrate the potential effectiveness of a photometric stereo based high resolution system for capturing 3D handprints using visible light sources. The sub-surface vascular structures are also enhanced through the use... Read More about Multispectral contactless 3D handprint acquisition for identification.

Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction (2018)
Journal Article
Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Grieve, B. (2018). Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction. Computers in Industry, 98, 56-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.006

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Leaf venation extraction studies have been strongly discouraged by considerable challenges posed by venation architectures that are complex, diverse and subtle. Additionally, unpredictable local leaf curvatures, undesirable ambie... Read More about Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction.

Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems (2018)
Journal Article
Jamil, A., Khan, M., Imran, A., Wakeel, A., Smith, M., Smith, L., …Irfan, M. (2018). Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems. Computers in Industry, 98, 23-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.005

© 2018 Recent years have shown enthusiastic research interest in weed classification for selective herbicide sprayer systems which are helpful in eradicating unwanted plants such as weeds from fields, minimizing the side effects of chemicals on the e... Read More about Visual features based boosted classification of weeds for real-time selective herbicide sprayer systems.

Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks (2018)
Journal Article
Baxter, E. M., Salter, M. G., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Hansen, M. F., Hansen, M. F., …Grieve, B. (2018). Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks. Computers in Industry, 98, 145-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.016

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Identification of individual livestock such as pigs and cows has become a pressing issue in recent years as intensification practices continue to be adopted and precise objective measurements are required (e.g. weight). Current b... Read More about Towards on-farm pig face recognition using convolutional neural networks.

Innovative 3D and 2D machine vision methods for analysis of plants and crops in the field (2018)
Journal Article
Smith, L., Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Hales, I., & Smith, M. (2018). Innovative 3D and 2D machine vision methods for analysis of plants and crops in the field. Computers in Industry, 97, 122-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.002

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Machine vision systems offer great potential for automating crop control, harvesting, fruit picking, and a range of other agricultural tasks. However, most of the reported research on machine vision in agriculture involves a 2D a... Read More about Innovative 3D and 2D machine vision methods for analysis of plants and crops in the field.

Automated monitoring of dairy cow body condition, mobility and weight using a single 3D video capture device (2018)
Journal Article
Hansen, M. F., Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., Abdul Jabbar, K., & Forbes, D. (2018). Automated monitoring of dairy cow body condition, mobility and weight using a single 3D video capture device. Computers in Industry, 98, 14-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.011

© 2018 Here we propose a low-cost automated system for the unobtrusive and continuous welfare monitoring of dairy cattle on the farm. We argue that effective and regular monitoring of multiple condition traits is not currently practicable and go on t... Read More about Automated monitoring of dairy cow body condition, mobility and weight using a single 3D video capture device.

BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum (2017)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Smith, L. N., Farooq, A. R., Sohaib, A., Farooq, A., Smith, L., …Broadbent, L. (2017). BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum. Sensor Review, 37(4), 390-395. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-11-2016-0258

© Emerald Publishing Limited. Purpose - Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little research available regarding spectral... Read More about BRDF of human skin in the visible spectrum.

Locomotion traits of dairy cows from overhead three-dimensional video (2016)
Presentation / Conference
Abdul Jabbar, K., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2016, December). Locomotion traits of dairy cows from overhead three-dimensional video. Paper presented at Visual observation and analysis of Vertebrate And Insect Behavior (VAIB), 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)

We investigate two locomotion traits in dairy cows from overhead 3D video to observe lameness trends. Detecting lameness -particularly at an early stage- is important in order to allow early treatment which maximizes detection benefits. The proposed... Read More about Locomotion traits of dairy cows from overhead three-dimensional video.

Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video (2016)
Journal Article
Abdul Jabbar, K., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2017). Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video. Biosystems Engineering, 153, 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1016...osystemseng.2016.09.017

ABSTRACT Lameness is a major issue in dairy herds and its early and automated detection offers animal welfare benefits together with high potential commercial savings for farmers. Current advancements in automated detection have not achieved a sensi... Read More about Early and non-intrusive lameness detection in dairy cows using 3-dimensional video.

Overhead spine arch analysis of dairy cows from three-dimensional video (2016)
Presentation / Conference
Abdul Jabbar, K., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2016, October). Overhead spine arch analysis of dairy cows from three-dimensional video. Paper presented at Eighth International Conference on Graphic and Image Processing (ICGIP 2016)

We present a spine arch analysis method in dairy cows using overhead 3D video data. This method is aimed for early stage lameness detection. That is important in order to allow early treatment; and thus, reduce the animal suffering and minimize the h... Read More about Overhead spine arch analysis of dairy cows from three-dimensional video.

Quadruped locomotion analysis using three-dimensional video (2016)
Presentation / Conference
Abdul Jabbar, K., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., & Smith, L. (2016, October). Quadruped locomotion analysis using three-dimensional video. Paper presented at IEEE ICSAE Conference

Abstract— To date, there has not been a single method suitable for large-scale or regular-basis implementation to analyze the locomotion of quadruped animals. Existing methods are not sensitive enough for detecting minor deviations from healthy gait... Read More about Quadruped locomotion analysis using three-dimensional video.

Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, M. L., Farooq, A. R., Smith, L. N., Smith, L., Farooq, A., Smith, M., …Orlando, A. (2017). Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction. International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, 13(2), e1761. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcs.1761

Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Background: Remote consultations that are realistic enough to be useful medically offer considerable clinical, logistical and cost benefits. Despite advances in virtual reality and vision hardware and softwa... Read More about Realistic and interactive high-resolution 4D environments for real-time surgeon and patient interaction.

Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach (2016)
Journal Article
Farooq, A. R., Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach. Sensor Review, 36(3), 277-286. https://doi.org/10.1108/SR-06-2015-0098

© Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose - This paper aims to introduce an unsupervised modular approach for eye centre localisation in images and videos following a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The design of the algorithm aims at ex... Read More about Eye centre localisation: An unsupervised modular approach.

Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions? (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Wenhao, Z., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions?. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 33(3), 333-344. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.33.000333

© 2016 Optical Society of America. This paper seeks to compare encoded features from both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) face images in order to achieve automatic gender recognition with high accuracy and robustness. The Fisher vecto... Read More about Gender recognition from facial images: Two or three dimensions?.

Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction (2016)
Journal Article
Smith, L. N., Smith, M. L., Zhang, W., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Farooq, A. (2016). Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 33(3), 314-325. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.33.000314

© 2016 Optical Society of America. This paper introduces an unsupervised modular approach for accurate and real-time eye center localization in images and videos, thus allowing a coarse-to-fine, global-to-regional scheme. The trajectories of eye cent... Read More about Eye center localization and gaze gesture recognition for human-computer interaction.


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