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From the lab to the field: Self-stratifying microbial fuel cells stacks directly powering lights (2020)
Journal Article
Walter, X. A., You, J., Winfield, J., Bajarunas, U., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (in press). From the lab to the field: Self-stratifying microbial fuel cells stacks directly powering lights. Applied Energy,

The mi­cro­bial fuel cell (MFC) tech­nol­ogy re­lies on en­ergy stor­age and har­vest­ing cir­cuitry to de­liver sta­ble power out­puts. This in­creases costs, and for wider de­ploy­ment into so­ci­ety, these should be kept min­i­mal. The pre­sent st... Read More about From the lab to the field: Self-stratifying microbial fuel cells stacks directly powering lights.

Scaling up self-stratifying supercapacitive microbial fuel cell (2020)
Journal Article
Walter, X. A., Santoro, C., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (in press). Scaling up self-stratifying supercapacitive microbial fuel cell. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,

Self-stratifying microbial fuel cells with three different electrodes sizes and volumes were operated in supercapacitive mode. As the electrodes size increased, the equivalent series resistance decreased, and the overall power was enhanced (small: ES... Read More about Scaling up self-stratifying supercapacitive microbial fuel cell.

Air-breathing cathode self-powered supercapacitive microbial fuel cell with human urine as electrolyte (2020)
Journal Article
Santoro, C., Walter, X. A., Soavi, F., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2020). Air-breathing cathode self-powered supercapacitive microbial fuel cell with human urine as electrolyte. Electrochimica Acta, 353, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2020.136530

In this work, a membraneless microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an empty volume of 1.5 mL, fed continuously with hydrolysed urine, was tested in supercapacitive mode (SC-MFC). In order to enhance the power output, a double strategy was used: i) a double... Read More about Air-breathing cathode self-powered supercapacitive microbial fuel cell with human urine as electrolyte.

A new method for urine electrofiltration and long term power enhancement using surface modified anodes with activated carbon in ceramic microbial fuel cells (2020)
Journal Article
Gajda, I., You, J., Santoro, C., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (2020). A new method for urine electrofiltration and long term power enhancement using surface modified anodes with activated carbon in ceramic microbial fuel cells. Electrochimica Acta, 353, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2020.136388

This work is presenting for the first time the use of inexpensive and efficient anode material for boosting power production, as well as improving electrofiltration of human urine in tubular microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The MFCs were constructed usin... Read More about A new method for urine electrofiltration and long term power enhancement using surface modified anodes with activated carbon in ceramic microbial fuel cells.

Electroosmotically generated disinfectant from urine as a by-product of electricity in microbial fuel cell for the inactivation of pathogenic species (2020)
Journal Article
Gajda, I., Obata, O., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (2020). Electroosmotically generated disinfectant from urine as a by-product of electricity in microbial fuel cell for the inactivation of pathogenic species. Scientific Reports, 10(1), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60626-x

This work presents a small scale and low cost ceramic based microbial fuel cell, utilising human urine into electricity, while producing clean catholyte into an initially empty cathode chamber through the process of electro-osmostic drag. It is the f... Read More about Electroosmotically generated disinfectant from urine as a by-product of electricity in microbial fuel cell for the inactivation of pathogenic species.

Resilience and limitations of MFC anodic community when exposed to antibacterial agents (2020)
Journal Article
Ieropoulos, I., Obata, O., Greenman, J., Ieropoulos, Y., Kurt, H., & Chandran, K. (2020). Resilience and limitations of MFC anodic community when exposed to antibacterial agents. Bioelectrochemistry, 134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2020.107500

This study evaluates the fate of certain bactericidal agents introduced into microbial fuel cell (MFC) cascades and the response of the microbial community. We tested the response of functioning urine fed MFC cascades using two very different bacteri... Read More about Resilience and limitations of MFC anodic community when exposed to antibacterial agents.

Urine in bioelectrochemical systems: An overall review (2020)
Journal Article
Santoro, C., Garcia, M. J. S., Walter, X. A., You, J., Theodosiou, P., Gajda, I., …Ieropoulos, I. (2020). Urine in bioelectrochemical systems: An overall review. ChemElectroChem, 7(6), 1312-1331. https://doi.org/10.1002/celc.201901995

In recent years, human urine has been successfully used as an electrolyte and organic substrate in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) mainly due of its unique properties. Urine contains organic compounds that can be utilised as a fuel for energy recov... Read More about Urine in bioelectrochemical systems: An overall review.

Scalability and stacking of self-stratifying microbial fuel cells treating urine (2020)
Journal Article
Walter, X. A., Santoro, C., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (2020). Scalability and stacking of self-stratifying microbial fuel cells treating urine. Bioelectrochemistry, 133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2020.107491

The scalability of Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is key to the development of stacks. A recent study has shown that self-stratifying membraneless MFCs (S-MFCs) could be scaled down to 2 cm without performance deterioration. However, the scaling-up limi... Read More about Scalability and stacking of self-stratifying microbial fuel cells treating urine.

Microbial fuel cell stack performance enhancement through carbon veil anode modification with activated carbon powder (2020)
Journal Article
Gajda, I., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2020). Microbial fuel cell stack performance enhancement through carbon veil anode modification with activated carbon powder. Applied Energy, 262, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.114475

The chemical energy contained in urine can be efficiently extracted into direct electricity by Microbial Fuel Cell stacks to reach usable power levels for practical implementation and a decentralised power source in remote locations. Herein, a novel... Read More about Microbial fuel cell stack performance enhancement through carbon veil anode modification with activated carbon powder.

Long-term bio-power of ceramic microbial fuel cells in individual and stacked configurations (2020)
Journal Article
Gajda, I., Obata, O., Jose Salar-Garcia, M., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. A. (2020). Long-term bio-power of ceramic microbial fuel cells in individual and stacked configurations. Bioelectrochemistry, 133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioelechem.2020.107459

© 2020 The Authors In order to improve the potential of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) as an applicable technology, the main challenge is to engineer practical systems for bioenergy production at larger scales and to test how the prototypes withstand th... Read More about Long-term bio-power of ceramic microbial fuel cells in individual and stacked configurations.

Development of efficient electroactive biofilm in urine-fed microbial fuel cell cascades for bioelectricity generation (2020)
Journal Article
Obata, O., Salar-Garcia, M. J., Greenman, J., Kurt, H., Chandran, K., & Ieropoulos, I. (2020). Development of efficient electroactive biofilm in urine-fed microbial fuel cell cascades for bioelectricity generation. Journal of Environmental Management, 258, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109992

The Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology harnesses the potential of some naturally occurring bacteria for electricity generation. Digested sludge is commonly used as the inoculum to initiate the process. There are, however, health hazards and practic... Read More about Development of efficient electroactive biofilm in urine-fed microbial fuel cell cascades for bioelectricity generation.

Microbial fuel cells directly powering a microcomputer (2019)
Journal Article
Walter, X. A., Walter, A., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2020). Microbial fuel cells directly powering a microcomputer. Journal of Power Sources, 446, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2019.227328

© 2019 The Authors Many studies have demonstrated that microbial fuel cells (MFC) can be energy-positive systems and power various low power applications. However, to be employed as a low-level power source, MFC systems rely on energy management circ... Read More about Microbial fuel cells directly powering a microcomputer.

A comprehensive study of custom-made ceramic separators for microbial fuel cells: Towards "living" bricks (2019)
Journal Article
You, J., Wallis, L., Radisavljevic, N., Pasternak, G., Sglavo, V. M., Hanczyc, M. M., …Ieropoulos, I. (2019). A comprehensive study of custom-made ceramic separators for microbial fuel cells: Towards "living" bricks. Energies, 12(21), https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214071

Towards the commercialisation of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology, well-performing, cost-effective, and sustainable separators are being developed. Ceramic is one of the promising materials for this purpose. In this study, ceramic separators made... Read More about A comprehensive study of custom-made ceramic separators for microbial fuel cells: Towards "living" bricks.

Long Term Feasibility Study of In-field Floating Microbial Fuel Cells for Monitoring Anoxic Wastewater and Energy Harvesting (2019)
Journal Article
Cristiani, P., Gajda, I., Greenman, J., Pizza, F., Bonelli, P., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Long Term Feasibility Study of In-field Floating Microbial Fuel Cells for Monitoring Anoxic Wastewater and Energy Harvesting. Frontiers in Energy Research, 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2019.00119

© Copyright © 2019 Cristiani, Gajda, Greenman, Pizza, Bonelli and Ieropoulos. In the present work different prototypes of floating MFCs have been tested in anoxic water environments of wastewater plants in Italy, over a period of 3 years. Several con... Read More about Long Term Feasibility Study of In-field Floating Microbial Fuel Cells for Monitoring Anoxic Wastewater and Energy Harvesting.

Living architecture: Toward energy generating buildings powered by microbial fuel cells (2019)
Journal Article
You, J., Rimbu, G. A., Wallis, L., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Living architecture: Toward energy generating buildings powered by microbial fuel cells. Frontiers in Energy Research, 7, https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2019.00094

In this study, possibilities of integrating microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology and buildings were investigated. Three kinds of conventional house bricks from two different locations were tested as MFC reactors and their electrochemical characterist... Read More about Living architecture: Toward energy generating buildings powered by microbial fuel cells.

Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microalgae; Photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC) as complete recycling machines (2019)
Journal Article
Greenman, J., Gajda, I., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microalgae; Photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC) as complete recycling machines. Sustainable Energy and Fuels, 3(10), 2546-2560. https://doi.org/10.1039/c9se00354a

© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Humans can exploit natural processes by microorganisms by using Microbial Fuel Cells and integrated Photo Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC/PMFC) chambers containing electrodes to maximise microbial oxidation rates and... Read More about Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microalgae; Photo microbial fuel cell (PMFC) as complete recycling machines.

Artificial neural network simulating microbial fuel cells with different membrane materials and electrode configurations (2019)
Journal Article
Tsompanas, M. A., You, J., Wallis, L., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Artificial neural network simulating microbial fuel cells with different membrane materials and electrode configurations. Journal of Power Sources, 436, 226832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2019.226832

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are gaining interest due to higher power production achieved by deep analysis of their characteristics and their effect on the overall efficiency. To date, investigations on MFC efficiency, can only be... Read More about Artificial neural network simulating microbial fuel cells with different membrane materials and electrode configurations.

Response of ceramic microbial fuel cells to direct anodic airflow and novel hydrogel cathodes (2019)
Journal Article
Winfield, J., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Response of ceramic microbial fuel cells to direct anodic airflow and novel hydrogel cathodes. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(29), 15344-15354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.04.024

© 2019 The Authors The presence of air in the anode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs)might be unavoidable in some applications. This study purposely exposed the anodic biofilm to air for sustained cycles using ceramic cylindrical MFCs. A method... Read More about Response of ceramic microbial fuel cells to direct anodic airflow and novel hydrogel cathodes.

Self-stratified and self-powered micro-supercapacitor integrated into a microbial fuel cell operating in human urine (2019)
Journal Article
Santoro, C., Walter, X. A., Soavi, F., Greenman, J., & Ieropoulos, I. (2019). Self-stratified and self-powered micro-supercapacitor integrated into a microbial fuel cell operating in human urine. Electrochimica Acta, 307, 241-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2019.03.194

© 2019 The Authors A self-stratified microbial fuel cell fed with human urine with a total internal volume of 0.55 ml was investigated as an internal supercapacitor, for the first time. The internal self-stratification allowed the development of two... Read More about Self-stratified and self-powered micro-supercapacitor integrated into a microbial fuel cell operating in human urine.


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