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Immunological and mass spectrometry-based approaches to determine thresholds of the mutagenic DNA adduct O 6 -methylguanine in vivo (2018)
Journal Article
Kraus, A., McKeague, M., Seiwert, N., Nagel, G., Geisen, S. M., Ziegler, N., …Fahrer, J. (2019). Immunological and mass spectrometry-based approaches to determine thresholds of the mutagenic DNA adduct O 6 -methylguanine in vivo. Archives of Toxicology, 93(2), 559-572. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2355-0

© 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature. N-nitroso compounds are alkylating agents, which are widespread in our diet and the environment. They induce DNA alkylation adducts such as O 6 -methylguanine (O 6 -MeG), which is repair... Read More about Immunological and mass spectrometry-based approaches to determine thresholds of the mutagenic DNA adduct O 6 -methylguanine in vivo.

Genetic toxicity assessment of engineered nanoparticles using a 3D in vitro skin model (EpiDerm ™ ) (2016)
Journal Article
Jenkins, G. J., Wills, J. W., Hondow, N., Thomas, A. D., Chapman, K. E., Fish, D., …Doak, S. H. (2016). Genetic toxicity assessment of engineered nanoparticles using a 3D in vitro skin model (EpiDerm ™ ). Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 13(1), 50. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-016-0161-5

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: The rapid production and incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into consumer products alongside research suggesting nanomaterials can cause cell death and DNA damage (genotoxicity) makes in vitro assays desirabl... Read More about Genetic toxicity assessment of engineered nanoparticles using a 3D in vitro skin model (EpiDerm ™ ).

DNA Repair and its influence on points of departure for alkylating agent genotoxicity (2016)
Book Chapter
Thomas, A. D., & Johnson, G. (2016). DNA Repair and its influence on points of departure for alkylating agent genotoxicity. In S. Fukushima, & T. Nohmi (Eds.), Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens From Mechanisms to Regulation, 67-82. Academic Press

Answering the question of whether low doses of DNA-reactive genotoxicants are of negligible concern has become a global effort due to its central importance in human health risk assessments. As a result, a huge amount of data exists suggesting that l... Read More about DNA Repair and its influence on points of departure for alkylating agent genotoxicity.

DNA damage and the balance between survival and death in cancer biology (2016)
Journal Article
Roos, W. P., Thomas, A. D., & Kaina, B. (2016). DNA damage and the balance between survival and death in cancer biology. Nature Reviews Cancer, 16(1), 20-33. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc.2015.2

© 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. DNA is vulnerable to damage resulting from endogenous metabolites, environmental and dietary carcinogens, some anti-inflammatory drugs, and genotoxic cancer therapeutics. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating... Read More about DNA damage and the balance between survival and death in cancer biology.

Do carcinogens have a threshold dose? Pro and contra (2015)
Book Chapter
Kaina, B., Thomas, A. D., & Hengslter, J. G. (2015). Do carcinogens have a threshold dose? Pro and contra. In F. Reichl, & M. Schwenk (Eds.), Regulatory Toxicology, 397-406. Springer

With sound understanding of biological concepts, the notion of threshold effect levels has grown in acceptance especially for electrophile-induced mutations. However, mutagenesis is one part of the exposure-to-tumor process in chemical carcinogenesis... Read More about Do carcinogens have a threshold dose? Pro and contra.

Theoretical considerations for thresholds in chemical carcinogenesis (2015)
Journal Article
Thomas, A. D., Thomas, A. D., Fahrer, J., Johnson, G., & Kaina, B. (2015). Theoretical considerations for thresholds in chemical carcinogenesis. Mutation Research - Reviews, 765, 56-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2015.05.001

© 2015 Elsevier B.V. There is increasing evidence for non-linear relationships for gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and even tumor incidences in response to low doses of genotoxic carcinogens. To attain the biological relevance of such non-lin... Read More about Theoretical considerations for thresholds in chemical carcinogenesis.

Dna repair by mgmt, but not aag, causes a threshold in alkylation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis (2015)
Journal Article
Thomas, A. D., Fahrer, J., Frisch, J., Nagel, G., Kraus, A., Dörsam, B., …Kaina, B. (2015). Dna repair by mgmt, but not aag, causes a threshold in alkylation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis, 36(10), 1235-1244. https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgv114

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Epidemiological studies indicate that N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are causally linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). NOC induce DNA alkylations, including O6-methylguanine (O6-M... Read More about Dna repair by mgmt, but not aag, causes a threshold in alkylation-induced colorectal carcinogenesis.

Recommendations, evaluation and validation of a semi-automated, fluorescent-based scoring protocol for micronucleus testing in human cells (2014)
Journal Article
Jenkins, G. J., Johnson, G. E., Doak, S. H., Doherty, A. T., Scott, A. D., Thomas, A. D., …Jenkins, G. (2014). Recommendations, evaluation and validation of a semi-automated, fluorescent-based scoring protocol for micronucleus testing in human cells. Mutagenesis, 29(3), 155-164. https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/geu008

Micronucleus (MN) induction is an established cytogenetic end point for evaluating structural and numerical chromosomal alterations in genotoxicity testing. A semi-automated scoring protocol for the assessment of MN preparations from human cell lines... Read More about Recommendations, evaluation and validation of a semi-automated, fluorescent-based scoring protocol for micronucleus testing in human cells.

Automation and validation of micronucleus detection in the 3D EpiDerm™ human reconstructed skin assay and correl (2014)
Journal Article
Jenkins, G. J., Doak, S. H., Pfuhler, S., Wills, J. W., Thomas, A. D., Chapman, K. E., …Jenkins, G. J. (2014). Automation and validation of micronucleus detection in the 3D EpiDerm™ human reconstructed skin assay and correl. Mutagenesis, 29(3), 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/geu011

Recent restrictions on the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals have resulted in the need to test the genotoxic potential of chemicals exclusively in vitro prior to licensing. However, as current in vitro tests produce some misleading positive... Read More about Automation and validation of micronucleus detection in the 3D EpiDerm™ human reconstructed skin assay and correl.

Does increase in DNA repair allow "Tolerance-to-Insult" in chemical carcinogenesis? Skin tumor experiments with MGMT-overexpressing mice (2013)
Journal Article
Thomas, A. D., Becker, K., Thomas, A. D., & Kaina, B. (2014). Does increase in DNA repair allow "Tolerance-to-Insult" in chemical carcinogenesis? Skin tumor experiments with MGMT-overexpressing mice. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 55(2), 145-150. https://doi.org/10.1002/em.21834

Several genotoxicity endpoints have been evaluated to define nonlinear dose-responses for S N 1 and S N 2 alkylating genotoxicants. Dose-response studies acknowledging the process of multistage tumorigenesis are important; however, data pertaining no... Read More about Does increase in DNA repair allow "Tolerance-to-Insult" in chemical carcinogenesis? Skin tumor experiments with MGMT-overexpressing mice.

Influence of dna repair on nonlinear dose-responses for mutation (2013)
Journal Article
Johnson, G. E., Doak, S. H., Lewis, P. D., Bodger, O. G., Thomas, A. D., Jenkins, G. J., …Johnson, G. (2013). Influence of dna repair on nonlinear dose-responses for mutation. Toxicological Sciences, 132(1), 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs341

Recent evidence has challenged the default assumption that all DNA-reactive alkylating agents exhibit a linear dose-response. Emerging evidence suggests that the model alkylating agents methyl- and ethylmethanesulfonate and methylnitrosourea (MNU) an... Read More about Influence of dna repair on nonlinear dose-responses for mutation.

Vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) at Swansea University UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487 (2010)
Journal Article
Doak, S. H., Thomas, A. D., Johnson, G. E., Johnson, G. E., Jenkins, G. J., Thomas, A. D., & Doak, S. (2010). Vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) at Swansea University UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487. Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 702(2), 189-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2009.07.014

The known aneugens vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol (DES) were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, with and without cytokinesis block in Chinese hamster CHO cells, at the laboratories of Swansea University, Swansea, UK. These experiments we... Read More about Vinblastine and diethylstilboestrol tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) at Swansea University UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487.


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