Morphology and form are the most common traits to be transferred from natural systems into architecture. However, such traits have seldom retained any environmental adaptation strategy of the imitated systems from nature, and therefore hardly represented a successful biomimetic design. In the last decade, more advanced solutions have emerged with promising multi-functional capabilities. In this chapter, we discuss the building envelope as a medium that utilizes morphological differentiation to adapt to its environment. Implementing morphological solutions from nature that are designed for environmental adaptations, such as the regulation of heat, air, water, and/or light, can enhance the performance of building envelopes, increase occupant comfort, and potentially reduce energy demands. We classify morphological solutions for buildings into three classes of skins, surfaces, and structures. Emerging technologies together with advanced manufacturing techniques have great potential to enable the development of more complicated concepts. These technologies, in combination with information technology, would enable buildings to self-adjust and respond to varying environmental conditions.
Badarnah, L., & Zolotovsky, K. (2022). Morphological differentiation for the environmental adaptation of biomimetic buildings: Skins, surfaces, and structures. In Biomimicry for Materials, Design and Habitats: Innovations and Applications (439-466). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821053-6.00007-2