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Development of strength models for prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement/byproduct material improved soils

Abbey, S. J.; Ngambi, S.; Ganjian, E.


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Samuel Abbey
Senior Lecturer in Geotechnical Engineering

S. Ngambi

E. Ganjian


© 2017 ASTM International. All rights reserved. This paper presents the possible inclusion of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast slag (GGBS) in cement deep soil mixing for enhancement of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of weak soil materials for construction purposes. The main focus of this paper was to investigate the UCS of cement-, cement/PFA-and cement/PFA/GGBS-improved soils, and development of mathematical and graphical models for prediction of UCS for use in design and construction. Samples of cement, blends of cement and PFA, and cement/PFA/GGBS were prepared using 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, and 20 % by weight of dry soil and tested for UCS after 7, 14, 28, and 56 days. A multiple regression analysis was conducted using the SPSS computer program. The results showed that soil materials with lower plasticity show higher strength development compared to those of higher plasticity for cement improvement. The study has also revealed that the inclusion of PFA and GGBS can cause a reduction in the amount of cement in deep soil mixing, which can result to reduced cost and emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) during construction. The developed mathematical and graphical models could give reliable predictions of UCS for weak soil materials with initial UCS less than or equal to 25 kPa and for water to binder ratio of unity based on the observed agreement between experimental and predicted data. The developed multiple regression models have also been validated using different mixtures of 6 %, 8 %, 12 %, and 16 % of binders.


Abbey, S. J., Ngambi, S., & Ganjian, E. (2017). Development of strength models for prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement/byproduct material improved soils. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 40(6), 928-935.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 24, 2017
Publication Date Nov 1, 2017
Deposit Date Feb 25, 2019
Journal Geotechnical Testing Journal
Print ISSN 0149-6115
Publisher ASTM International
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 40
Issue 6
Pages 928-935
Keywords weak soil, deep soil mixing, unconfined compressive strength, strength model, cement-improved soils,
cement/pulverized fuel ash/ground granulated blast slag–improved soil, regression model
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