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The Input-to-State Stable (ISS) approach for stabilizing haptic interaction with virtual environments

Jafari, Aghil; Nabeel, Muhammad; Ryu, Jee Hwan


Muhammad Nabeel

Jee Hwan Ryu


© 2004-2012 IEEE. Passivity has been a major criterion for designing a stable haptic interface due to its numerous advantages. However, passivity-based controllers have suffered from the design conservatism of the passivity criterion, particularly when users want to increase the maximum apparent impedance. Based on the input-to-state stable (ISS) criterion and an analogy between haptic interfaces and systems with hysteresis, this paper proposes a control framework that is less conservative than passivity-based controllers. The proposed ISS approach allows a non-predetermined finite amount of output energy to be extracted from the system. Therefore, the proposed method can increase the maximum apparent impedance compared with passivity-based approaches. The focus of this paper is on how the proposed approach is designed to satisfy the input-to-state stability criterion in real time without prior knowledge of the system. This paper also extends the primary single-port ISS approach to a two-port ISS approach for multiple-degree-of-freedom generalization. The experimental and numerical results demonstrate that the proposed ISS approach is able to stabilize a higher impedance range than the time-domain passivity approach. The experimental results also confirm that the proposed approach provides higher actual apparent impedance to the operator compared with the energy-bounding and force-bounding approaches.


Jafari, A., Nabeel, M., & Ryu, J. H. (2017). The Input-to-State Stable (ISS) approach for stabilizing haptic interaction with virtual environments. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 33(4), 948-963.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 10, 2017
Publication Date Aug 1, 2017
Journal IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Print ISSN 1552-3098
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 33
Issue 4
Pages 948-963
Keywords haptic interfaces, stability criteria, asymptotic stability, impedance, hysteresis, numerical stability
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