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Mechanical sequential counting with liquid marbles

Draper, Thomas; Fullarton, Claire; Phillips, Neil; de Lacy Costello, Ben; Adamatzky, Andrew


Dr Thomas Draper
Research Fellow Biosensing/ Healthcare Technology

Claire Fullarton

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Dr Neil Phillips
Research Fellow in Fungal Analog Electronics


S Stepney

S Verlan


© 2018, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature. Here we demonstrate the first working example of a liquid marble-operated sequential binary counting device. We have designed a lightweight gate that can be actuated by the low mass and momentum of a liquid marble. By linking a number of these gates in series, we are able to digitally count up to binary 1111 (upper limit only by our requirements). Using liquid marbles in such a system opens up new avenues of research and design, by way of modifying the coating and/or core of the liquid marbles, and thereby giving extra dimensions for calculation (e.g. a calculation that takes into consideration the progress of a chemical reaction inside a liquid marble). In addition, the new gate design has multiple uses in liquid marble rerouting.


Draper, T., Fullarton, C., Phillips, N., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2018). Mechanical sequential counting with liquid marbles. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 10867 LNCS, 59-71.

Journal Article Type Conference Paper
Acceptance Date May 1, 2018
Publication Date Jan 1, 2018
Journal Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Print ISSN 0302-9743
Electronic ISSN 1611-3349
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10867 LNCS
Pages 59-71
Series Title Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Book Title Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation
Keywords liquid marble, unconventional computing, binary counter, logic gate, particle-coated droplets, mechanical computing
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : This is the accepted version of the paper. The final version is available at


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