In this chapter, we delineate various appearance alterations that can result from cancer and its treatment. We focus on describing the impact of appearance changes involving weight, scarring from surgery, alopecia, ascites, and lymphedema. We also examine the influence of patient-related factors (i.e., gender, age) and treatment-related factors on appearance-related distress. Various models of adjustment to alterations in appearance are presented with particular attention to predisposing factors, intervening cognitive processes, and measurable outcomes identified by large-scale research studies conducted by the Appearance Research Collaboration. Finally, we identify gaps in knowledge and directions for future research needed to advance our understanding of an individual’s experiences of living with an altered appearance due to cancer.