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Trace voltammetric determination of lead at a recycled battery carbon rod electrode

Honeychurch, Kevin



Carbon rod electrodes (CREs) were obtained from recycled zinc–carbon batteries and were used without further modification for the measurement of trace concentrations of lead (Pb). The electrochemical behavior of Pb at these electrodes in a variety of supporting electrolytes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic peaks obtained on the reverse scans were indicative of Pb being deposited as a thin layer on the electrode surface. The greatest signal–to–noise ratios were obtained in organic acids compared to mineral acids, and acetic acid was selected as the supporting electrolyte for further studies. Conditions were optimized, and it was possible to determine trace concentrations of Pb by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. A supporting electrolyte of 4% v/v acetic acid, with a deposition potential of −1.5 V (vs. SCE) and a deposition time of 1100 s, was found to be optimum. A linear range of 2.8 μg/L to 110 μg/L was obtained, with an associated detection limit (3σ) of 2.8 μg/L. A mean recovery of 95.6% (CV=3.9%) was obtained for a tap water sample fortified with 21.3 μg/L.


Honeychurch, K. (2019). Trace voltammetric determination of lead at a recycled battery carbon rod electrode. Sensors, 19(4), Article 770.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 11, 2019
Online Publication Date Feb 13, 2019
Publication Date Feb 2, 2019
Deposit Date Feb 15, 2019
Publicly Available Date Feb 15, 2019
Journal Sensors
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 19
Issue 4
Article Number 770
Keywords lead, cyclic voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, recycled, carbon, environmentally friendly
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