Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

The dimensions of written expression: Language group and gender differences

Babayiğit, Selma

The dimensions of written expression: Language group and gender differences Thumbnail


Selma Babayigit
Senior Lecturer in Social Psychology


© 2014. This study compared the written expression of 159 English-speaking first (L1) and second language (L2) learners (Mage=9; 7 years, SD=3.63 months) in England The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the four dimensions of written expression, namely holistic quality, written vocabulary, organisational quality, and compositional fluency. Girls also outperformed boys on all dimensions, except for organisation. The interaction between language group and gender was nonsignificant, but there was a trend for the language group differences to be larger for boys. Vocabulary, organisation, and compositional fluency made unique contributions to holistic quality in both language groups and the strength of these relations were relatively comparable across the L1 and L2 groups. Educational implications are discussed.


Babayiğit, S. (2015). The dimensions of written expression: Language group and gender differences. Learning and Instruction, 35, 33-41.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 12, 2014
Online Publication Date Sep 30, 2014
Publication Date Feb 1, 2015
Deposit Date Nov 26, 2014
Publicly Available Date Mar 30, 2016
Journal Learning and Instruction
Print ISSN 0959-4752
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 35
Pages 33-41
Keywords English as an additional language, bilingual, text writing, vocabulary, compositional fluency, spelling, multigroup path analysis
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Learning and Instruction. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Learning and Instruction, [35, (February 2015)] DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.08.006


Babayigit2015DimensionsofWrittenexpression_LearningandInstruction_AuthorsPrepublicationcopy.pdf (1.4 Mb)

Babayigit2015DimensionsofWrittenexpression_LearningandInstruction_AuthorsPrepublicationcopy (1).docx (191 Kb)

You might also like

Downloadable Citations