Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

The voltammetric behaviour of lead at a hand drawn pencil electrode and its trace determination in water by stripping voltammetry

Honeychurch, Kevin C.



This is the first reported the proof of concept application of pencil drawn electrodes (PDEs) for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb2+ or any metal ion. PDEs offer advantages of economics, simplicity and rapid fabrication, affording a green alternative for the development of new devices. Cyclic voltammetric investigations of Pb2+ at these electrodes in 0.30 M acetic acid were characterised by a cathodic reduction peak on the initial negative scan resulting from the reduction of Pb2+ ions to Pb0. Anodic peaks obtained on the return positive scan showed that Pb had been deposited as a thin film on the PDE surface. The addition of Cl ions to this electrolyte improved the voltammetric behaviour and a supporting electrolyte of 0.30 M acetic acid containing 0.25 M KCl was found to be optimum. Investigations were made into the possibility of determining trace levels of Pb2+ by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The effect of accumulation potential and time were investigated and optimised. Three anodic stripping peaks were recorded resulting from the heterogeneous nature of the electrode surface. Using an accumulation potential of 1.1 V and an accumulation time of 200 s a bimodal calibration curve was recorded, with linear ranges between 80 to 330 ng/mL and 330 to 915 ng/mL. The theoretical detection limit (3?) was calculated as 9.5 ng/mL. Pb2+ determinations on a drainage water sample gave a mean recovery of 100.9 % (%CV= 5.7 %) at a concentration of 166.1 ng/mL indicating the method holds promise for the determination of Pb2+ in such samples.


Honeychurch, K. C. (2015). The voltammetric behaviour of lead at a hand drawn pencil electrode and its trace determination in water by stripping voltammetry. Analytical Methods, 2015(6), 2437-2443.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Mar 21, 2015
Journal Analytical Methods
Print ISSN 1759-9660
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 2015
Issue 6
Pages 2437-2443
Keywords carbon electrodes, pencil, stripping voltammetry, lead
Public URL
Publisher URL
Related Public URLs!recentarticles&all
Additional Information Additional Information : First published online 02 Feb 2015


Corrected resubmission Pencil-drawn electrodes Pb DPASV The Analyticval Methods 18 1 15.pdf (570 Kb)

You might also like

Downloadable Citations