The Garden City Idea, first promoted by Ebenezer Howard in the UK during the early part of twentieth century, quickly spread around the world. In so doing, though, it became transformed to suit local circumstances and often became a very different physical output to that envisaged by Howard. The article explores that transformation and asks if there are lessons to learn from it for place-making today, concluding that indeed there have been and often they improve the original concept.
Devereux, M. (2015). International interpretations of the garden city ideal: Lessons for placemaking. Urban Design -New Series-, 134, 32-34