Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Augmenting reality and formality of informal and non-formal settings to enhance blended learning

Hern�ndez-Leo, Davinia; P�rez-Sanagust�n, Mar; Perez-Sanagustin, Mar; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Santos, Patricia; Kloos, Carlos Delgado; Blat, Josep

Augmenting reality and formality of informal and non-formal settings to enhance blended learning Thumbnail


Davinia Hern�ndez-Leo

Mar P�rez-Sanagust�n

Mar Perez-Sanagustin

Davinia Hernandez-Leo

Patricia Santos

Carlos Delgado Kloos

Josep Blat


Visits to museums and city tours have been part of higher and secondary education curriculum activities for many years. However these activities are typically considered "less formal" when compared to those carried out in the classroom, mainly because they take place in informal or non-formal settings. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies and smartphones can transform such informal and non-formal settings into digitally augmented learning settings by superimposing "digital" layers of information over physical objects or spaces. At the same time, the formality of these settings increases when connected to formal settings through these digital layers. The right combination of AR and mobile technologies with computer-based educational tools such as Learning Management Systems (LMSs) drives this digital connection, leading to articulated blended learning activities across formal, non-formal and informal settings. This paper contributes to the TEL field with: (1) three blended learning activities illustrating the idea of augmented informal/non-formal settings; (2) results from the cross-analysis of these activities that evidence the impact of technology to enhance blended learning; and (3) a set of lessons learned about the possibilities of NFC/GPS AR technologies and LMSs for blended learning. This work provides insights for the design and implementation of similar technology-enhanced blended learning activities. © 2008-2011 IEEE.


Hernández-Leo, D., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Perez-Sanagustin, M., Hernandez-Leo, D., Santos, P., Kloos, C. D., & Blat, J. (2014). Augmenting reality and formality of informal and non-formal settings to enhance blended learning. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 7(2), 118-131.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Apr 1, 2014
Deposit Date Aug 13, 2015
Publicly Available Date Apr 13, 2016
Journal IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Print ISSN 1939-1382
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Issue 2
Pages 118-131
Keywords augmented reality, m-learning, blended learning
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : (c) 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.


Downloadable Citations