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Multidimensional benefits of improved sanitation: Evaluating 'PEE POWER®' in Kisoro, Uganda

You, Jiseon; Staddon, Chad; Cook, Alan; Walker, James; Boulton, Jess; Powell, Wayne; Ieropoulos, Ioannis


Jiseon You
Research Fellow - Bristol BioEnergy Centre

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Chad Staddon
Professor/Associate Head of Department: Research and Scholarship

Alan Cook

James Walker

Jess Boulton

Wayne Powell


With 2.3 billion people around the world lacking adequate sanitation services, attention has turned to alternative service provision models. This study suggests an approach for meeting the sanitation challenge, especially as expressed in Sustainable Development Goal 6.2, using a toilet technology system, such as Pee Power® that generates electricity using diverted urine as a fuel. A field trial was carried out in a girls' school in Kisoro, Uganda, where the generated electricity was used to light the existing toilet block. The trial was evaluated in terms of social acceptability and user experience using a multidimensional assessment protocol. The results of our assessment show that users felt safer when visiting the toilets at night. Lights provided from the technology also helped with the perceived cleanliness of the toilets. The technology was well accepted, with 97% of the respondents saying that they liked the idea of the Pee Power® technology and 94% preferring it over other facilities on site. This shows how the technology helps meet SDG target 6.2, with its particular focus on vulnerable populations.


You, J., Staddon, C., Cook, A., Walker, J., Boulton, J., Powell, W., & Ieropoulos, I. (2020). Multidimensional benefits of improved sanitation: Evaluating 'PEE POWER®' in Kisoro, Uganda. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 19, 2020
Online Publication Date Mar 25, 2020
Publication Date Mar 25, 2020
Deposit Date Mar 25, 2020
Publicly Available Date Mar 26, 2020
Electronic ISSN 1660-4601
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Issue 7
Article Number 2175
Keywords Pee Power®; ecological sanitation; renewable energy; social acceptance; user perception; female safety; gender equality; female empowerment; sustainable development goal
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