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Evaluating flood adaptation governance in the city of Calabar, Nigeria

Adekola, Olalekan; Lamond, Jessica; Adelekan, Ibidun; Eze, Eze Bassey


Olalekan Adekola

Jessica Lamond
College Dean for Research & Enterprise

Ibidun Adelekan

Eze Bassey Eze


The increasing demand for cities in developing societies to embed climate adaptation into policies and practices has implications for the governance system which mainly focus on governing by traditional hierarchical forms, and by network while neglecting other forms of governing. This raises fundamental questions concerning how governing arrangements support or constrain climate hazard management. The paper assesses existing approaches to adapting to climate hazards in Calabar metropolis in Nigeria, where flooding is a major hazard. The governance systems adopted in the context of flood adaptation and their implication for practice is further investigated, and the strategies necessary for an improved implementation of climate hazard adaptation at the local governance level examined. Data for the study is collected from a stakeholder workshop and document analysis. Despite calls for decentralized governance and prevalence of a hierarchical system, other forms of governing coexist alongside these systems in Calabar. Five key strategies which should form the basis of urban climate hazard adaptation in practice, as identified by stakeholders, are synergy of activities among stakeholders; enforcement devoid of politics and bureaucracy, capacity building and information/data availability; increased focus on international cooperation and funding; and consideration of connections between flooding and other urban processes.


Adekola, O., Lamond, J., Adelekan, I., & Eze, E. B. (2020). Evaluating flood adaptation governance in the city of Calabar, Nigeria. Climate and Development, 12(9), 840-853.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 27, 2019
Online Publication Date Dec 18, 2019
Publication Date Dec 1, 2020
Deposit Date Dec 19, 2019
Publicly Available Date Dec 19, 2020
Journal Climate and Development
Print ISSN 1756-5529
Electronic ISSN 1756-5537
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 9
Pages 840-853
Keywords Climate hazard, cities, developing countries, informal interaction, flood adaptation, governance, Geography, Planning and Development; Development; Global and Planetary Change
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