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Assessment of the physical characteristics and stormwater effluent quality of permeable pavement systems containing recycled materials

Monrose, John; Tota-Maharaj, Kiran; Mwasha, Abrahams


Kiran Tota-Maharaj

Abrahams Mwasha


This paper evaluates the physical characteristics of two recycled materials and the pollutant removal efficiencies of four 0.2 m2 tanked permeable pavement rigs in the laboratory, that contained either natural aggregates or these recycled materials in the sub-base. The selected recycled materials were Crushed Concrete Aggregates (CCA) and Cement-bounded Expanded Polystyrene beads (C-EPS) whilst the natural aggregates were basalt and quartzite. Natural stormwater runoff was used as influent. Effluent was collected for analysis after 7–10 mins of discharge. Influent and effluent were analysed for pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Electroconductivity (EC), turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N), reactive phosphorous (PO43-) and sulphates (SO42-). Both CCA and C-EPS had suitable physical properties for use as sub-base materials in PPS. However, C-EPS is recommended for use in pavements with light to no traffic because of its relatively low compressive strength. In terms of pollutant removal efficiencies, significant differences (p < 0.01) were found in pH, EC, TDS, DO, PO43- and SO42- across all rigs whereas no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found with respect to TSS, turbidity, COD and NO3-N. Effluent from rigs containing CCA and C-EPS saw significant increases in pH, EC and TDS measurements whilst improvements in DO, TSS, turbidity, COD, PO43- and SO42- were observed. All mean values except pH were, however, within the Maximum Permissible Levels (MPLs) of water pollutants discharged into the environment according to the Trinidad and Tobago Environmental Management Authority (EMA) or the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this regard, the CCA and C-EPS performed satisfactorily as sub-base materials in the permeable pavement rigs. It is noted, however, that further analysis is recommended through leaching tests on the recycled materials.


Monrose, J., Tota-Maharaj, K., & Mwasha, A. (2021). Assessment of the physical characteristics and stormwater effluent quality of permeable pavement systems containing recycled materials. Road Materials and Pavement Design, 22(4), 779-811.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 5, 2019
Online Publication Date Jul 18, 2019
Publication Date Jan 1, 2021
Deposit Date Jul 11, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jul 19, 2020
Journal Road Materials and Pavement Design
Print ISSN 1468-0629
Electronic ISSN 2164-7402
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 4
Pages 779-811
Keywords permeable pavement, crushed concrete aggregates, pollutant removal, small island developing states (SIDS), expanded polystyrene, recycling
Public URL
Publisher URL


Final Version - After Feedback (full author details and affiliations).pdf (487 Kb)


Copyright Statement
This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Road Materials and Pavement Design on 18 Jul 2019, available online:

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