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Detection and quantitative microbial risk assessment of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in a river used for drinking, domestic, fresh produce irrigation and recreational purposes

Ozochi, Chizoba A.; Okonkwo, Christopher C.; Adukwu, Emmanuel; Adukwu, Emmanuel C.; Ujor, Victor C.; Enebe, Matthew C.; Chigor, Vincent N.

Detection and quantitative microbial risk assessment of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in a river used for drinking, domestic, fresh produce irrigation and recreational purposes Thumbnail


Authors

Chizoba A. Ozochi

Christopher C. Okonkwo

Victor C. Ujor

Matthew C. Enebe

Vincent N. Chigor



Abstract

Cholera infection results from the ingestion of water or food contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. This study evaluated the occurrence of toxigenic V. cholerae in Asata River, Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria, and estimated V. cholerae infection risks from use of the River water for drinking, domestic and recreational purposes. Vibrio was detected and quantified using membrane filtration technique and thiosulfate–citrate–bile salts–sucrose agar. Isolates were screened by PCR, using specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (its) region between 16 and 23S rRNA and the cholera toxin (ctx) gene. Sequenced 16SrRNA gene amplicons of two selected isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was conducted using the β-Poisson dose–response model. About 81% (58/72) of Asata River samples recorded Vibrio counts above 1.0 × 103 cfu/100 mL. Of the fifty Vibrio isolates screened, its was detected in 54% (27/50), out of which 74% (20/27) had the ctx gene of toxigenic V. cholerae. Evolutionary relatedness of the sequenced isolates to V. cholerae was revealed. The estimated risks of cholera infection in persons exposed to untreated Asata River water were above 0.5 for all the exposure scenarios, for both the rainy and dry seasons. The risks were highest (~ 0.9) for exposure via drinking water and annual risk of infection was deduced to have a probability of 1.0. Therefore, dependence on the untreated Asata River water for drinking, recreational, domestic and irrigation purposes may present a potential public health risk of cholera outbreak. We recommend increased monitoring and surveillance of River water for Vibrio abundance and that Asata River be protected from further degradation.

Citation

Ozochi, C. A., Okonkwo, C. C., Adukwu, E., Adukwu, E. C., Ujor, V. C., Enebe, M. C., & Chigor, V. N. (2024). Detection and quantitative microbial risk assessment of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in a river used for drinking, domestic, fresh produce irrigation and recreational purposes. Discover Water, 4(1), Article 7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43832-024-00059-z

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 5, 2024
Online Publication Date Feb 29, 2024
Publication Date Feb 29, 2024
Deposit Date Feb 5, 2024
Publicly Available Date Mar 5, 2024
Journal Discover Water
Publisher Springer (part of Springer Nature)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 4
Issue 1
Article Number 7
DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s43832-024-00059-z
Keywords Toxigenic Vibrio strains, Surface waters, Drinking water, Human health risks, Cholera, Quantitative microbial risk assessment
Public URL https://uwe-repository.worktribe.com/output/11658660
Publisher URL https://link.springer.com/journal/43832

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