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Logical gates in ensembles of proteinoid microspheres

Mougkogiannis, Panagiotis; Adamatzky, Andrew

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Panagiotis Mougkogiannis


Jianhui Liu


Proteinoids are thermal proteins which swell into microspheres in aqueous solution. Ensembles of proteinoids produce electrical spiking activity similar to that of neurons. We introduce a novel method for implementing logical gates in the ensembles of proteinoid microspheres using chronoamperometry. Chronoamperometry is a technique that involves applying a voltage pulse to proteinoid microspheres and measuring their current response. We have observed that proteinoids exhibit distinct current patterns that align with various logical outputs. We identify four types of logical gates: AND, OR, XOR, and NAND. These gates are determined by the current response of proteinoid microspheres. Additionally, we demonstrate that proteinoid microspheres have the ability to modify their current response over time, which is influenced by their previous exposure to voltage. This indicates that they possess a capacity for learning and are capable of adapting to their environment. Our research showcases the ability of proteinoid microspheres to perform logical operations and computations through their inherent electrical properties.


Mougkogiannis, P., & Adamatzky, A. (2023). Logical gates in ensembles of proteinoid microspheres. PLoS ONE, 18(9), Article e0289433.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 7, 2023
Online Publication Date Sep 18, 2023
Publication Date Sep 18, 2023
Deposit Date Sep 18, 2023
Publicly Available Date Sep 20, 2023
Journal PLoS ONE
Electronic ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 9
Article Number e0289433
Public URL


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