The detailed and long-term effects of park and ride are more complex than generally acknowledged. In 1994, studies of park and ride were carried out in Oxford and York. The success of park and ride in attracting users was confirmed, and these users reported high levels of satisfaction. However, some users had switched from modes other than car and others were found to be making additional trips which had been attracted by the opportunity to park and ride. Congestion has remained persistent in the cities studied and there is concern that total travel may have been increased rather than reduced, which was the intention. It is concluded that, for park and ride to be successful, 'package' policies will need to be strengthened to favour conventional public transport and that particular care will need to be taken by other local authorities adopting park and ride. © 1995.