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Graphene-based electrodes for monitoring of Estradiol

Musa, Auwal M; Kiely, Janice; Luxton, Richard; Honeychurch, Kevin C.

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Auwal M Musa

Janice Kiely
Professor in Bio-electronics/Res In CoDi

Richard Luxton
Research Centre Director-IBST/Professor


This study explores the potential use of graphene-based electrodes in the electrochemical determination of estradiol using amperometric techniques as a simple, enzyme-free approach. Graphene, a carbon-based nanomaterial, has been extensively investigated in materials science as a sensing material. Its remarkable properties, such as its high electron mobility and conductivity, robust mechanical characteristics, and good surface-to-volume ratio, have led to its adoption in numerous applications, including electrochemical sensing. Estradiol is a crucial sex hormone that affects metabolism and reproduction. However, excessive amounts may disrupt endocrine functions. Electrochemical sensors suffer from electrode fouling, leading to passivation that ultimately affects performance. We exploit the inherent properties of various types of graphene-based electrodes, including graphene screen-printed electrodes (GHSPE), electrochemically exfoliated graphene-modified electrodes (EEFGHSPE), and 3D graphene foam screen-printed electrodes (3D-GFSPE), for the amperometric studies. The electrochemical properties and structural characteristics of these sensors are evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. The analytical performance of these sensors is at an applied potential of +0.65 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) over the concentration range 0.83 to 4.98 μM estradiol. Sensitivities of 0.151 µAµM−1 cm−2, 0.429 µAµM−1 cm−2, and 0.273 µA µM−1 cm−2, with detection limits of 0.0041 µM, 0.097 µM, and 0.018 µM (S/N = 3), are found for GHPSPE, 3D-GFSPE and EEFGHSPE, respectively. The possibility of amperometrically determining the estradiol levels in a potable tap water sample are then investigated over the concentration range 0.83–4.98 µM.


Musa, A. M., Kiely, J., Luxton, R., & Honeychurch, K. C. (2023). Graphene-based electrodes for monitoring of Estradiol. Chemosensors, 11(6), 337.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 22, 2023
Online Publication Date Jun 6, 2023
Publication Date Jun 6, 2023
Deposit Date Jun 7, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jun 7, 2023
Journal Chemosensors
Electronic ISSN 2227-9040
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 6
Article Number 337
Pages 337
Series Title This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Screen-Printed Electrode & Electrochemical Sensor Applications
Keywords estradiol; electrochemical exfoliation; electroanalysis; graphene-based electrodes
Public URL
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