In this brief literature review paper, we explore four areas of the theoretical and empirical literature to discuss the use of financial information by capital providers: (i) Who are capital providers to companies, including all forms of debt, equity, grants, soft-loans, trade credit, and so on? (ii) How do equity holders and their agents use financial statements as information sources in their own right and in their models and other metrics? (iii) How do debt holders and their agents use financial statements of their own accord and in their models and other metrics? (iv) What is the overall use of financial statement information and how does such financial information compare with that required by users? The review draws out key issues in relation to each of these questions, focusing on precisely where and how the literature tackles the use of information by capital providers, whether this is a primary or subsidiary consideration in the literature, how information usage relates to other issues such as governance, disclosure, performance and risk management, and so on, and how key developments in financial reporting have changed the way in which the information is employed.