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A statistical model of catheter motion from interventional x-ray images: Application to image-based gating

O'Neill, M.; Panayiotou, M.; King, A. P.; Ma, Y.; Housden, R. J.; Rinaldi, C. A.; Gill, J.; Cooklin, M.; O�Neill, M.; Rhode, K. S.


M. O'Neill

M. Panayiotou

A. P. King

Y. Ma

R. J. Housden

C. A. Rinaldi

J. Gill

M. Cooklin

M. O�Neill

K. S. Rhode


The motion and deformation of catheters that lie inside cardiac structures can provide valuable information about the motion of the heart. In this paper we describe the formation of a novel statistical model of the motion of a coronary sinus (CS) catheter based on principal component analysis of tracked electrode locations from standard mono-plane x-ray fluoroscopy images. We demonstrate the application of our model for the purposes of retrospective cardiac and respiratory gating of x-ray fluoroscopy images in normal dose x-ray fluoroscopy images, and demonstrate how a modification of the technique allows application to very low dose scenarios. We validated our method on ten mono-plane imaging sequences comprising a total of 610 frames from ten different patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. For normal dose images we established systole, end-inspiration and end-expiration gating with success rates of 100%, 92.1% and 86.9%, respectively. For very low dose applications, the method was tested on the same ten mono-plane x-ray fluoroscopy sequences without noise and with added noise at signal to noise ratio (SNR) values of √50, √10, √8, √6, √5, √2 and √1 to simulate the image quality of increasingly lower dose x-ray images. The method was able to detect the CS catheter even in the lowest SNR images with median errors not exceeding 2.6 mm per electrode. Furthermore, gating success rates of 100%, 71.4% and 85.7% were achieved at the low SNR value of √2, representing a dose reduction of more than 25 times. Thus, the technique has the potential to extract useful information whilst substantially reducing the radiation exposure. © 2013 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.


O'Neill, M., Panayiotou, M., King, A. P., Ma, Y., Housden, R. J., Rinaldi, C. A., …Rhode, K. S. (2013). A statistical model of catheter motion from interventional x-ray images: Application to image-based gating. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 58(21), 7543-7562.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Nov 7, 2013
Journal Physics in Medicine and Biology
Print ISSN 0031-9155
Electronic ISSN 1361-6560
Publisher IOP Publishing
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 58
Issue 21
Pages 7543-7562
Keywords catheter motion, x-ray, image-based gating
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