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Using in-situ sensors to quantify spatial variability in nutrient concentrations across the Ganges river basin

Khamis, Kieran; Fox, Bethany; Reynolds, Darren; Thorn, Robin; Clayton, Gillian; Perrin, Eva; Dutta, Tapan K; Bowes, Michael J; Read, Daniel S; Nicholls, David J.E.; Armstrong, Linda K; Hazra, Moushumi; Joshi, Himanshu; Richards, Laura A; Polya, David A; Ghosh, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Kumari, Rupa; Gaurav, Aman; Kumar, Siddhu; Kumar, Sumant; Chakravorty, Biswajit; Gooddy, Daren; Krause, Stefan; Khamis, Kieran; Nel, Holly; Schneidewind, Uwe; Howard, Ben; Mewes, Danielle; Hannah, David; Magnone, Daniel


Kieran Khamis

Bethany Fox
Occasional Associate Lecturer - HAS - DAS

Dr Robin Thorn
Director of Research and Enterprise

Eva Perrin

Tapan K Dutta

Michael J Bowes

Daniel S Read

David J.E. Nicholls

Linda K Armstrong

Moushumi Hazra

Himanshu Joshi

Laura A Richards

David A Polya

Ashok Ghosh

Arun Kumar

Rupa Kumari

Aman Gaurav

Siddhu Kumar

Sumant Kumar

Biswajit Chakravorty

Daren Gooddy

Stefan Krause

Kieran Khamis

Holly Nel

Uwe Schneidewind

Ben Howard

Danielle Mewes

David Hannah

Daniel Magnone


There is increasing interest in monitoring spatial variability in biogeochemical processes using field deployable sensors. Despite this, rigorous assessments of accuracy and optimal sensor configurations remain limited for such applications. We undertook a comprehensive field study, between November and December 2019 (post-monsoon), across diverse monitoring locations on the River Ganges and its tributaries in Northern India. At 81 sites, from the foothills of the Himalayas to the tidal limit at Kolkata, the following suite of routine sensor measurements were taken; dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), pH and turbidity. In addition “new” optical parameters were also measured; absorbance (190 – 360 nm) and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF). Parallel water samples were collected for laboratory determination of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen species (NO3 and NH4), phosphorus fractions (SRP, TP, TDP), absorbance and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMs). A series of predictive models for each laboratory derived nutrient parameter were developed based on partial least squares regression, lasso regression, and stepwise regression approaches. The predictive power of the best models (i.e. combination of sensors and model approach) were assessed using 10-fold cross validation. Residual patterns were inspected to help infer the environmental conditions under which in-situ sensors could be used reliably. The highest predictive power was apparent for NO3, DOC and SRP. This was apparent when considering models based on the routinely measured parameters (R2cv = 0.45 – 0.6; EC explained most variance) or when new optical parameters were included (R2cv = 0.6 - 0.8; absorbance


Khamis, K., Fox, B., Reynolds, D., Thorn, R., Clayton, G., Perrin, E., …Magnone, D. (2021, April). Using in-situ sensors to quantify spatial variability in nutrient concentrations across the Ganges river basin. Presented at EGU General Assembly 2021

Presentation Conference Type Lecture
Conference Name EGU General Assembly 2021
Start Date Apr 19, 2021
End Date Apr 30, 2021
Deposit Date Feb 21, 2022
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