Notwithstanding the presence of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, the movement of hazardous waste has grown globally in the form of dumping of toxic and electronic waste, relocation of ship breaking industries and even in the form of recycling of hazardous waste. A substantial proportion of toxic waste exports go to countries outside Europe, including Asian and African countries. Waste treatment in these countries usually occurs in the informal sector without any government intervention, causing significant environmental pollution and health risks for local people. The focus of this chapter is the relocation of ship breaking industries from the North to the South. The chapter will examine the relevance of environmental crime in managing the health and environmental problems associated with ship breaking industries, as well as the effectiveness of the remedies under national regulatory mechanisms and the efficiency of regulatory standards and remedies at the international level that deal with the hazardous movement of toxic ships.
Razzaque, J. (2017). Toxic ships, environmental crimes, and the North-South discourse. In T. Bergin, & E. Orlando (Eds.), Forging a Socio-Legal Approach to Environmental Harms: Global Perspectives, 154-182. Routledge