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Taking women's different bodily functions into account, including menstruation, in sanitation provision

Greed, Clara


Clara Greed


Whilst over two billion people lack adequate toilet provision, water supply, and sanitation, women are particularly badly affected. Women have fewer facilities to start with, but more toileting needs caused by biological differences including menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. For example, 50% of school girls in Africa leave school when menstruation starts because of lack of suitable school toilets. Over 50% of the world’s population is urbanized and of those, over 50% of urban dwellers live in shanty towns and unregulated settlements, most of which lack adequate sanitation provision, especially for women and girls travelling by public transport, working away from home, or going to school. Comparisons are made with the toilet situation in Western countries. Toilet provision is one of the last frontiers of gender inequality. Female toilet provision needs to be recognised as a key component of urban planning policy, in order to create sustainable, accessible and equitable cities.

Presentation Conference Type Conference Paper (unpublished)
Conference Name WEDC Conference
Start Date Jul 24, 2017
End Date Jul 28, 2017
Acceptance Date Mar 1, 2017
Peer Reviewed Not Peer Reviewed
Keywords sanitation, water, toilets, gender, latrines, developing world, menstruation, hygiene
Public URL
Additional Information Title of Conference or Conference Proceedings : WEDC Water Sanitatioin and Hygiene (WASH) Loughborough