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Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction

Zhang, Wenhao; Hansen, Mark F; Smith, Melvyn; Smith, Lyndon; Grieve, Bruce

Authors

Wenhao Zhang Wenhao.Zhang@uwe.ac.uk
Senior Lecturer in Machine Vision

Mark Hansen Mark.Hansen@uwe.ac.uk
Associate Professor in Knowledge Exchange & External Engagement

Melvyn Smith Melvyn.Smith@uwe.ac.uk
Research Centre Director Vision Lab/Prof

Lyndon Smith Lyndon.Smith@uwe.ac.uk
Professor in Computer Simulation and Machine

Bruce Grieve



Abstract

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Leaf venation extraction studies have been strongly discouraged by considerable challenges posed by venation architectures that are complex, diverse and subtle. Additionally, unpredictable local leaf curvatures, undesirable ambient illuminations, and abnormal conditions of leaves may coexist with other complications. While leaf venation extraction has high potential for assisting with plant phenotyping, speciation and modelling, its investigations to date have been confined to colour image acquisition and processing which are commonly confounded by the aforementioned biotic and abiotic variations. To bridge the gaps in this area, we have designed a 3D imaging system for leaf venation extraction, which can overcome dark or bright ambient illumination and can allow for 3D data reconstruction in high resolution. We further propose a novel leaf venation extraction algorithm that can obtain illumination-independent surface normal features by performing Photometric Stereo reconstruction as well as local shape measures by fusing the decoupled shape index and curvedness features. In addition, this algorithm can determine venation polarity – whether veins are raised above or recessed into a leaf. Tests on both sides of different leaf species with varied venation architectures show that the proposed method is accurate in extracting the primary, secondary and even tertiary veins. It also proves to be robust against leaf diseases which can cause dramatic changes in colour. The effectiveness of this algorithm in determining venation polarity is verified by it correctly recognising raised or recessed veins in nine different experiments.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jun 1, 2018
Journal Computers in Industry
Print ISSN 0166-3615
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 98
Pages 56-67
APA6 Citation Zhang, W., Hansen, M. F., Smith, M., Smith, L., & Grieve, B. (2018). Photometric stereo for three-dimensional leaf venation extraction. Computers in Industry, 98, 56-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.006
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.006
Keywords leaf venation, leaf disease, 3D imaging, shape index, photometric stereo, ridge detection
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compind.2018.02.006

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Licence
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Copyright Statement
© 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).







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