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Trust in an autonomously driven simulator and vehicle performing maneuvers at a T-junction with and without other vehicles

Morgan, Phillip L; Williams, Craig; Flower, Jonathan; Alford, Chris; Parkin, John

Authors

Phillip L Morgan

Craig Williams craig6.williams@uwe.ac.uk

John Parkin John.Parkin@uwe.ac.uk
Professor in Transport Engineering



Contributors

Neville Stanton
Editor

Janusz Kacprzyk kacprzyk@ibspan.waw.pl
Editor

Abstract

Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is developing rapidly. Level 3 automation assumes the user might need to respond to requests to retake control. Levels 4 (high automation) and 5 (full automation) do not require human monitoring of the driving task or systems [1]: the AV handles driving functions and makes deci-sions based on continuously updated information. A gradual switch in the role of the human within the vehicle from active controller to passive passenger comes with uncertainty in terms of trust, which will likely be a key barrier to acceptabil-ity, adoption and continued use [2]. Few studies have investigated trust in AVs and these have tended to use driving simulators with Level 3 automation [3, 4]. The current study used both a driving simulator and autonomous road vehicle. Both were operating at Level 3 autonomy although did not require intervention from the user; much like Level 4 systems. Forty-six participants completed road circuits (UK-based) with both platforms. Trust was measured immediately after different types of turns at a priority T-junction, increasing in complexity: e.g., driving left or right out of a T-junction; turning right into a T-junction; presence of oncoming/crossing vehicles. Trust was high across platforms: higher in the simulator for some events and higher in the road AV for others. Generally, and often irrespective of platform, trust was higher for turns involving an oncom-ing/crossing vehicle(s) than without traffic, possibly because the turn felt more controlled as the simulator and road AVs always yielded, resulting in a delayed maneuver. We also found multiple positive relationships between trust in automa-tion and technology, and trust ratings for most T-junction turn events across plat-forms. The assessment of trust was successful and the novel findings are im-portant to those designing, developing and testing AVs with users in mind. Un-dertaking a trial of this scale is complex and caution should be exercised about over-generalizing the findings.
Keywords: Autonomous Driving · Autonomous Simulator · Autonomous Vehi-cle · Trust · Acceptability

Publication Date Jul 1, 2018
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 786
Pages 363-375
Series Title Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing
Series Number 786
Book Title Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation Proceedings of the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 21–25, 2018, Loews Sapphire Falls Resort at Universal Studios, Orlando, Florida, USA
ISBN 9783319938844
APA6 Citation Morgan, P. L., Williams, C., Flower, J., Alford, C., & Parkin, J. (2018). Trust in an autonomously driven simulator and vehicle performing maneuvers at a T-junction with and without other vehicles. In N. Stanton, & J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation Proceedings of the AHFE 2018 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 21–25, 2018, Loews Sapphire Falls Resort at Universal Studios, Orlando, Florida, USA, 363-375. Springer
Keywords autonomous driving, autonomous simulator, autonomous vehicle, trust, acceptability
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93885-1