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Towards experimental P-systems using multivesicular liposomes

Mayne, Richard; Phillips, Neil; Adamatzky, Andrew

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Richard Mayne
Lecturer in Maths Supporting Science

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Dr Neil Phillips
Research Fellow in Fungal Analog Electronics


P-systems are abstract computational models inspired by the phospholipid bilayer membranes generated by biological cells. Illustrated here is a mechanism by which recursive liposome structures (multivesicular liposomes) may be experimentally produced through electroformation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) films for use in ‘real’ P-systems. We first present the electroformation protocol and microscopic characterisation of incident liposomes towards estimating the size of computing elements, level of internal compartment recursion, fault tolerance and stability. Following, we demonstrate multiple routes towards embedding symbols, namely modification of swelling solutions, passive diffusion and microinjection. Finally, we discuss how computing devices based on P-systems can be produced and their current limitations.


Mayne, R., Phillips, N., & Adamatzky, A. (2019). Towards experimental P-systems using multivesicular liposomes. Œconomia, 1(1), 20-28.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 14, 2018
Online Publication Date Jan 22, 2019
Publication Date Mar 31, 2019
Deposit Date Jan 24, 2019
Publicly Available Date Jan 24, 2019
Journal Journal of Membrane Computing
Print ISSN 2113-5207
Electronic ISSN 2523-8914
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 1
Issue 1
Pages 20-28
Keywords p-system, liposome, synthetic biology, unconventional computing, GUV, multivesicular
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