© 1963-2012 IEEE. The so-called fourth industrial revolution and its economic and societal implications are no longer solely an academic concern, but a matter for political as well as public debate. Characterized as the convergence of robotics, AI, autonomous systems and information technology - or cyberphysical systems - the fourth industrial revolution was the focus of the World Economic Forum, at Davos, in 2016 . Also in 2016 the US White House initiated a series of public workshops on artificial intelligence (AI) and the creation of an interagency working group, and the European Parliament Committee for Legal Affairs published a draft report with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics.
Winfield, A. F., Michael, K., Pitt, J., & Evers, V. (2019). Machine ethics: The design and governance of ethical AI and autonomous systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 107(3), 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2019.2900622