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4D printing self-morphing structures

Bodaghi, Mahdi; Noroozi, Reza; Zolfagharian, Ali; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Norouzi, Saeed


Mahdi Bodaghi

Reza Noroozi

Ali Zolfagharian

Saeed Norouzi


© 2019 by the authors. Themain objective of thispaper is to introduce complex structureswith self-bending/morphing/ rolling features fabricated by 4D printing technology, and replicate their thermo-mechanical behaviors using a simple computational tool. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is implemented to fabricate adaptive composite structures with performance-driven functionality built directly into materials. Structural primitives with self-bending 1D-to-2D features are first developed by functionally graded 4D printing. They are then employed as actuation elements to design complex structures that show 2D-to-3D shape-shifting by self-bending/morphing. The effects of printing speed on the self-bending/morphing characteristics are investigated in detail. Thermo-mechanical behaviors of the 4D-printed structures are simulated by introducing a straightforward method into the commercial finite element (FE) software package of Abaqus that is much simpler than writing a user-defined material subroutine or an in-house FE code. The high accuracy of the proposed method is verified by a comparison study with experiments and numerical results obtained from an in-house FE solution. Finally, the developed digital tool is implemented to engineer several practical self-morphing/rolling structures.


Bodaghi, M., Noroozi, R., Zolfagharian, A., Fotouhi, M., & Norouzi, S. (2019). 4D printing self-morphing structures. Materials, 12(8),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 22, 2019
Publication Date Apr 25, 2019
Deposit Date Apr 24, 2019
Publicly Available Date Sep 17, 2019
Journal Materials
Print ISSN 1996-1944
Electronic ISSN 1996-1944
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Not Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 8
Keywords 4D printing, shape memory polymer, self-morphing, experiments, FEM
Public URL


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