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4D printing self-morphing structures

Bodaghi, Mahdi; Noroozi, Reza; Zolfagharian, Ali; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Norouzi, Saeed


Mahdi Bodaghi

Reza Noroozi

Ali Zolfagharian

Saeed Norouzi


© 2019 by the authors. Themain objective of thispaper is to introduce complex structureswith self-bending/morphing/ rolling features fabricated by 4D printing technology, and replicate their thermo-mechanical behaviors using a simple computational tool. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is implemented to fabricate adaptive composite structures with performance-driven functionality built directly into materials. Structural primitives with self-bending 1D-to-2D features are first developed by functionally graded 4D printing. They are then employed as actuation elements to design complex structures that show 2D-to-3D shape-shifting by self-bending/morphing. The effects of printing speed on the self-bending/morphing characteristics are investigated in detail. Thermo-mechanical behaviors of the 4D-printed structures are simulated by introducing a straightforward method into the commercial finite element (FE) software package of Abaqus that is much simpler than writing a user-defined material subroutine or an in-house FE code. The high accuracy of the proposed method is verified by a comparison study with experiments and numerical results obtained from an in-house FE solution. Finally, the developed digital tool is implemented to engineer several practical self-morphing/rolling structures.


Bodaghi, M., Noroozi, R., Zolfagharian, A., Fotouhi, M., & Norouzi, S. (2019). 4D printing self-morphing structures. Materials, 12(8),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 22, 2019
Publication Date Apr 25, 2019
Journal Materials
Print ISSN 1996-1944
Electronic ISSN 1996-1944
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Not Peer Reviewed
Volume 12
Issue 8
Keywords 4D printing, shape memory polymer, self-morphing, experiments, FEM
Public URL


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