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Audio-visual-olfactory resource allocation for tri-modal virtual environments

Doukakis, E.; Debattista, K.; Bashford-Rogers, T.; Dhokia, A.; Asadipour, A.; Chalmers, A.; Harvey, C.

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E. Doukakis

K. Debattista

A. Dhokia

A. Asadipour

A. Chalmers

C. Harvey


© 2019 IEEE. Virtual Environments (VEs) provide the opportunity to simulate a wide range of applications, from training to entertainment, in a safe and controlled manner. For applications which require realistic representations of real world environments, the VEs need to provide multiple, physically accurate sensory stimuli. However, simulating all the senses that comprise the human sensory system (HSS) is a task that requires significant computational resources. Since it is intractable to deliver all senses at the highest quality, we propose a resource distribution scheme in order to achieve an optimal perceptual experience within the given computational budgets. This paper investigates resource balancing for multi-modal scenarios composed of aural, visual and olfactory stimuli. Three experimental studies were conducted. The first experiment identified perceptual boundaries for olfactory computation. In the second experiment, participants (N=25) were asked, across a fixed number of budgets (M=5), to identify what they perceived to be the best visual, acoustic and olfactory stimulus quality for a given computational budget. Results demonstrate that participants tend to prioritize visual quality compared to other sensory stimuli. However, as the budget size is increased, users prefer a balanced distribution of resources with an increased preference for having smell impulses in the VE. Based on the collected data, a quality prediction model is proposed and its accuracy is validated against previously unused budgets and an untested scenario in a third and final experiment.


Doukakis, E., Debattista, K., Bashford-Rogers, T., Dhokia, A., Asadipour, A., Chalmers, A., & Harvey, C. (2019). Audio-visual-olfactory resource allocation for tri-modal virtual environments. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 25(5), 1865-1875.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 2, 2019
Online Publication Date Feb 14, 2019
Publication Date May 1, 2019
Deposit Date Feb 18, 2019
Publicly Available Date Feb 18, 2019
Journal IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Print ISSN 1077-2626
Electronic ISSN 1941-0506
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Issue 5
Pages 1865-1875
Keywords Olfactory; Visualization; Computational modeling; Resource management; Mathematical model; Auditory system; Virtual environments; Multi-modal; Cross-modal; Tri-modal; Sound; Graphics
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Additional Information Additional Information : (c) 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.


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