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Contemporary problems with the GATS and internet gambling

Turksen, Umut; Holder, Ruth

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Umut Turksen

Ruth Holder


This article focuses on the issue of enforcement of the WTO rules on international cross-border trade in services. It is argued that the examination of the GATS jurisprudence and state practice reveal that the GATS does not address the needs of the developing countries in general and the prospects of internet gambling services in the Caribbean Community in particular. First, the article discusses the extent of service-producing activities within the GATS provisions and outlines the main principles of WTO. It stresses that ‘services’ include gambling and games provided online. It also asserts that cross-border trade in services via Information and Communication Technologies presents several challenges for policy makers including enforcement, control and accountability. Second, the article critically analyses the United States (US) domestic legal instruments, which led to the complaint by Antigua and Barbuda. Subsequently, the focus is shifted to the critique of the judgments by WTO dispute settlement bodies. Third, the article evaluates the effectiveness of the DSU from a legal redress and compliance point of view, particularly in instances where weaker economies as complainants challenge leading economies of the world.


Turksen, U., & Holder, R. (2015). Contemporary problems with the GATS and internet gambling. Journal of World Trade, 49(3), 457-493

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jun 1, 2015
Deposit Date Aug 18, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jul 1, 2016
Journal Journal of World Trade
Print ISSN 1011-6702
Publisher Kluwer Law International
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 49
Issue 3
Pages 457-493
Keywords internet gambling, GATS
Public URL
Publisher URL


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