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Tourism and water inequity in Bali: A social-ecological systems analysis

Cole, Stroma; Browne, Mia


Stroma Cole
Occasional Associate Lecturer - FET GEM

Mia Browne


© 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York. This paper is a social-ecological systems (SES) analysis of tourism and water inequity in Bali. It uses Elinor Ostrom's SES model to look at the particular niche of Bali's tourism and water nexus. Re-analysis of previous qualitative research revealed that the vulnerability of the SES was due to numerous characteristics. In particular, user groups are highly diverse, transient and stratified, thereby inhibiting communication and knowledge sharing. This, in combination with weak governance systems and the economic power of the tourism industry, interact to affect declining water resources and the iniquitous impact of this. Whilst there are obvious indications that Bali's water resources are over stretched, there is no feedback loop to the institutional structures that would help enable appropriate responses from the user groups or governance system.


Cole, S., & Browne, M. (2015). Tourism and water inequity in Bali: A social-ecological systems analysis. Human Ecology, 43(3), 439-450.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jun 1, 2015
Journal Human Ecology
Print ISSN 0300-7839
Publisher Springer (part of Springer Nature)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 43
Issue 3
Pages 439-450
Keywords socio-ecological systems, SES, Bali, water, tourism
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information Additional Information : The final publication is available at Springer via


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