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‘Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session’: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate a school-based body image intervention among Indonesian adolescents

Craddock, Nadia; Garbett, Kirsty M.; Haywood, Sharon; Nasution, Kholisah; White, Paul; Saraswati, L. Ayu; Rizkiah, Chairunnisa; Medise, Bernie E.; Diedrichs, Phillippa C.


Nadia Craddock

Sharon Haywood

Kholisah Nasution

Paul White
Professor in Applied Statistics

L. Ayu Saraswati

Chairunnisa Rizkiah

Bernie E. Medise


Background: Due to the prevalence and associated adverse health consequences of negative body image among adolescents globally, there is a need to develop acceptable, effective, and scalable interventions. School-based body image interventions delivered by trained teachers show promise in reducing negative body image in adolescents. However, there is currently a lack of evidenced-based body image interventions for use in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). This paper outlines a protocol for the development and evaluation of Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session, a single-session, teacher-led body image intervention for Indonesian adolescents. Method: The effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the trial will be conducted online. Trained teachers or school guidance counsellors will deliver the intervention. Self-report questionnaires will be collected at three time points: baseline, post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. The primary outcome is body esteem. Secondary outcomes are internalisation of appearance ideals, mood, engagement in life activities, tendency to engage in appearance comparisons, and skin shade satisfaction. A minimum of 1000 participants will provide 95% power to detect small-to-medium intervention effects. To account for attrition and potential internet issues, the sample will comprise of 2000 Indonesian adolescents in grades 7-9, attending state junior high schools in Surabaya, East Java. Quantitative and qualitative data on acceptability of the intervention will also be collected from teachers and students. Additionally, fidelity of lesson implementation will be assessed. This project received ethical approval from the Universitas Indonesia and the University of the West of England. The intervention will be disseminated in junior high schools throughout Indonesia via UNICEF's Life Skills Education (LSE) programme, which will be freely available for teachers to download.


Craddock, N., Garbett, K. M., Haywood, S., Nasution, K., White, P., Saraswati, L. A., …Diedrichs, P. C. (2021). ‘Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session’: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate a school-based body image intervention among Indonesian adolescents. BMC Public Health, 21(1), Article 2102.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 10, 2021
Online Publication Date Nov 16, 2021
Publication Date 2021-12
Deposit Date Nov 18, 2021
Publicly Available Date Nov 19, 2021
Journal BMC Public Health
Electronic ISSN 1471-2458
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 21
Issue 1
Article Number 2102
Keywords Public Health, Body Image, Indonesia, School-based Interventions
Public URL
Additional Information Received: 19 February 2021; Accepted: 10 September 2021; First Online: 16 November 2021; : ; : This trial received ethical approval from the Universitas Indonesia (KET-1373/ UN2.F1/ETIK/PPM.00.02/ 2020) and the University of the West of England (HAS.20.05.174). Informed parental consent will be obtained for students, who in turn, will provide active assent.; : Not applicable; : PCD is an independent consultant to the Dove Self-Esteem Project global education initiative. PCD and SH were on the Dove Self-Esteem Project Global Advisory Board in 2013–2016. The authors declare no other conflicts of interest in relation to this work.