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Reproductive characteristics of wild Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei)

Brown, Janine L.; Fern�ndez, David; Doran-Sheehy, Diane; Borries, Carola


Janine L. Brown

Diane Doran-Sheehy

Carola Borries


© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. An accurate description of reproductive characteristics and ovarian endocrinology is necessary to address questions about the reproductive strategies and life history of a species and for meaningful, cross species analyses. Here we used analysis of fecal estradiol (fE) and behavioral observations to determine for the first time the reproductive characteristics and endocrinology of a wild group (N=18 adult and 3 adolescent females) of Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei). The study was conducted in the Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania, from October 2008 through September 2010. Average cycle length (±SD) was 29.3±3.2 days in adults and 51.4±5.5 days in adolescents. Menses appeared within 5.1±2.1 days in adults and 4.8±0.3 days in adolescents after the end of maximum tumescence, and lasted 6.7±3.1 and 10.3±5.0 days, respectively. Infant death tended to reduce the number of cycles to conception (4.3±1.5 cycles after a surviving infant vs. 2.6±1.0 cycles after infant death). Adolescents cycled for at least 16 months without conceiving. Implantation bleeding began 17.5±0.7 days from the onset of detumescence, and lasted 10.0±1.4 days. Gestation length averaged 171.8±3.4 days. Postpartum amenorrhea lasted 6.7±2.3 months while females whose infants had died resumed cycling within 14.3±5.9 days. The interbirth interval after a surviving infant averaged 20.0±4.3 months. These reproductive characteristics of the Sanje mangabey resembled those of other mangabeys and related cercopithecines, with the exception of an earlier onset and longer duration of menstruation and implantation bleeding. Further information on the physiology of the Sanje mangabey is needed to clarify what factors may cause the unusual characteristics of both, their menses and implantation bleeding. Am. J. Primatol. 76:1163-1174, 2014.


Brown, J. L., Fernández, D., Doran-Sheehy, D., & Borries, C. (2014). Reproductive characteristics of wild Sanje mangabeys (Cercocebus sanjei). American Journal of Primatology, 76(12), 1163-1174.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 13, 2014
Publication Date Jan 1, 2014
Deposit Date Feb 1, 2016
Journal American Journal of Primatology
Print ISSN 0275-2565
Electronic ISSN 1098-2345
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 76
Issue 12
Pages 1163-1174
Keywords adolescent, gestation length, interbirth interval, ovarian hormones, postpartum amenorrhea, Udzungwa Mountains
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